Lifting Revolution: Ten Reasons Why Your Husband Will Always Be Stronger and Faster Than You

Why Your Husband is Stronger

Lifting Revolution is a website by Lindal Boyle who is a figure competitor and personal trainer. Lifting Revolution encourages a healthy life style and promotes physical fitness for women. Now that women have entered the fitness and sports world in greater numbers, they need information specific to their bodies and training. A positive element about this movement is that it has improved women’s health both mentally and physically. There are some other social aspects as well. Women with highly active lifestyles will likely marry men with similar  tastes for physical contests. Women who compete in any sport are very competitive. Some even are competitive with their significant others. While women are becoming competitive in the sciences, law, politics, and business there remains one area men still dominate. Physical strength and speed men have more of an advantage. This is not an indication of biological superiority, rather the result of millions of years of evolution. Bolye states that “doesn’t that headline just irk you?”  in the first line of the article. Oddly, she then replies ” it certainly does me. ”  A simple statement of biological fact should not cause irritation. This is not ” sadly the truth.” Men and women have different levels of physical fitness capacity. Women who workout with their husbands seem to either get frustrated or jealous of their husband’s fitness progress. There should be no reason to get vexed at this. Sameness  feminism has been at war with science that is common accepted fact. Some women have unfortunately adopted the idea in order to be equal to men, they must be similar to them. This distortion can cause many problems. Husbands and wives should not be making working out a competition, rather a fun activity. Women seeking to outperform physically fit men will find themselves in a losing battle. There are ten major reason why if your husband trains like a serious athlete his physical fitness capacity would be higher.

        The new era of women’s freedom has given them more confidence. This is important that women have self-esteem. However, this drive of sameness feminism seeks to compete with men for the sake of competing with men. The girl power concept chants phrases “I can do anything a man can do” or ” the future is female.” It wants to promote the image that every woman can be strong, intelligent, and excel at anything. Women have different strengths and talents, but every woman is not a superwoman. Some women who are competitive in the athletic and fitness fields may overestimate their physical abilities. Raised in this girl power mindset, they may challenge a man in a physical contest thinking that physiology and biology are not a factor. Some even think they can beat any man. Sports data and performance shows otherwise. Women who actually decide to compete with a man of equal training either come to a dramatic realization of their capabilities or become vexed that there is a difference.

The anger comes at the idea that somehow nature made a mistake. Why does man have so much physical power, while women have to work harder to gain it? This was due to evolutionary biology and the possibility that greater male strength was designed for men competing with other men for mates. Greater physical fitness capacity may have also contributed to hunting wildlife for sustenance. Sex differences should not be viewed by women as a curse or a hindrance to their sports endeavors. Women’s sports performance may not be equal to men’s in certain physical markers, but this does not mean the are less than capable athletes. The reason weight classes are present in sports is to have a level playing field. If there were not in particular sports only the largest men would dominate. Women seeing as the weigh less and are smaller than men, having separate divisions for them is nothing more a specialized weight class that takes into account biological and physiological considerations. There have been claims that women’s divisions constitute sex segregation. Such an accusation lacks credibility due to two critical points. The divisions are designed to allow for fair contest based on size of opponents. If men are on average larger than women, this would put women at a disadvantage. Women are not barred from competing on men’s teams. There are cases in which women have competed on men’s teams. Eri Yoshida is a baseball player that has pitched for various teams.

Eri

She was the first woman to be drafted for a men’s professional baseball team. She has even pitched for teams in the United States. There is no ban against women playing on men’s baseball teams. So having women’s divisions in sports does not constitute segregation like a system akin to Apartheid or Jim Crow laws. Women should not take the difference in sports performance as being doomed to be second rate. It is more so a testament to how amazing the female body is. Women have less natural strength, but through training, diet, and dedication reach a higher fitness level compared to their starting point. There must be a repudiation of the battle of the sexes mindset. A female athlete should not have to compare her performance to a man’s just for a sense of worth or validation. It is ludicrous to get upset that reaching fitness goals or sports targets takes longer for women. Women have to train harder to reach a certain level, yet this demonstrates what diligence and determination can do.  Sports and fitness are more than just strength and speed; meticulous skill is required to excel at any sport.

      Muscular strength  is important for athletic contests. Men have more muscle compared to women. Even women with mesomorphic body types do not match the amount of musculature as a male. Men experience a higher degree of muscular hypertrophy through weight training. There is no difference in muscle cells between men and women. Women can experience muscular hypertrophy, yet this does not mean they will grow to the size of Arnold Schwarzenegger. The largest female bodybuilders barely weigh as much as they appear. Iris Kyle  multiple Ms.Olympia champion,  during her competitions weighed 165 lbs while male bodybuilders reach the 200 lbs mark. Phil Heath the current Mr. Olympia weighs 240 lbs during competition. This gives an estimate of strength levels depending on fitness level.A woman who trains seriously can reach  or surpass the strength level of an average male.

When it comes to pure brute strength type II muscle fibers are the most important. These muscle fibers are responsible for explosive bursts of force. Simply having more muscle does not make a person stronger. It depends on the ratio of fast twitch type II muscle fibers . Normally, achieving a high amount of strength requires lifting heavy to induce microtrauma  in the muscle. During the process of muscular hypertrophy, it rebuilds itself. Ligaments, tendons, and the skeletal structure also contribute to body strength. It is not solely muscle. Bone density also makes a huge difference. Muscles are attached to bones through tendons. This is for the sake of handling tension and force. Ligaments are similar to tendons, but are different in the sense that they are designed to attach bone to bone.Women’s bones have less density and have smaller skeletal structures. If women were to each the highest male level of strength it would require the increase in skeletal structure. The skeleton has to be big enough to support large muscles. Women ligaments also differ in size and the tendons as well. Looser joints means women could be more susceptible to particular injuries like ACL tears.

Sex is not the sole factor in physical strength, but it is a significant one. Myostatin also plays a large role in how much muscle a person can gain . The regulates muscular hypertrophy. A woman with low myostatin levels would have greater potential in terms of muscular gain.  Women retain higher fat levels no matter what somatotype. The most muscular or the slimmest woman would still have a higher fat percentage. The reason the female body does this is for the sake of ovulation. If a woman’s body fat levels get to low, a female athlete could risk of amenorrhea. This condition is the absence of menstruation. Fat is normally seen as a hindrance in athletic performance, however it may give women an advantage in ultra-marathon events. Running faster to meet men’s speeds would be difficult, yet the longer the race, endurance becomes more critical. A woman’s body contains an estimated 27% fat compared to the male estimate of 15%. Muscle fiber type, musculoskeletal mass, genetics, age, and sex contribute to physical strength.Body composition and muscle mass are major factors in physical fitness capacity.

         Women have smaller hearts and lungs  compared to men. What this means is that men with larger hearts are able to pump more blood. This is estimated at 16% liters  of blood per heartbeat more compared to women.  Although women can increase their running speed, training does not increase female organ size. The more blood pump the more oxygen can be utilized for the muscle tissue. This is a vital source of energy. Larger lungs also men that men can absorb more oxygen close to 30% more than women. This explains why the author Kindal’s brother who smokes cigarettes can outrun her in a 100 meter sprint. The sheer difference in lung and heart size provides a physical advantage for men. There should be a correction noted in the article. According to some exercise physiology studies, women may actually recover better from a weight training regimen. Red blood cell count is important, yet there is still more to learn about differences in recovery from training. Red blood cells do not only carry oxygenated blood to muscles, but to other tissues This is a major factor in exercise and competition. The anatomical structures of the circulatory and respiratory system do not differ vastly between men in women.

queen

Training does not increase organ size in relation to the heart and lungs. Muscle tissue growth functions on a different method and physiology. Knowing this about the importance of organ size it is possible for a larger woman to run faster than a smaller man. The cardiovascular system is a network of  arteries and veins transporting blood through the human body. Blood is considered an organ, although it is in liquid form. It must carry oxygen, while simultaneously removing waste products. An artery by definition is the muscular walled tubes of the body which transport mostly oxygenated blood to other sections of  an organism.  Veins refer to the anatomical structures which are blood vessels that carry oxygen back to the heart.

Circulatory system

The heart is an organ that is center of the circulatory system. The respiratory system has the responsibility of  taking oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide from it. When oxygen is taken by the blood carbon dioxide will be released. The lungs are the major organ of the respiratory system involved in the physiology of gas exchange. The throat and nose take in air. The trachea a windpipe pathway to the lungs splits into bronchi. Athletic and physical fitness capacity is dependent on the muscular, circulatory, and respiratory system. It also must be realized that the nervous system also contributes to athletic performance. Without the nervous system both voluntary and involuntary movements would not be possible. The nervous system effects all other organ systems. When physical activity is happening the circulatory and respiratory system collaborate with one another.

              Structurally, male and female bodies differ. Women have a wider pelvis to accommodate childbirth. The shape of the hips and pelvis means that women’s femurs are placed in a different angle. This is referred sometimes as a q-angle. This effects running speed in terms of biomechanical efficiency. The angle does not contribute to running speed. So even if women could match a man in muscular mass in the legs, the pelvis and q-angle of the legs would effect running speed.

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The quadriceps angle

 Front view of female pelvic anatomy

The quadriceps angle has a larger arc  estimated at 18 degrees. This adds another challenge. There is more pressure on women’s lower bodies. Women could get more sore from running compared to a man with limited pressure on his lower body.  One difference that is over looked is women’s shorter strides. Men are on average taller than women, which means they have longer strides. This means when even walking fast a man can cover more ground. Recent studies suggest that women may have an advantage in ultramarathon events. While the strength gap is larger, endurance becomes key the longer the running distance. There still needs to be more investigation, but if this proves correct it will demonstrate that women also have physical advantages.

        Endocrinology also has a role in physical fitness capacity. Men produce more testosterone which aids in a greater extent of protein synthesis. This also leads to men’s greater levels of muscular hypertrophy through training. Boys are not born physically stronger than girls. Prior to puberty, there is little strength difference between the sexes. Girls actually mature faster physically, growing taller. However, hormones act differently for males and females. Women do produce lower levels of testosterone, but the primary sex hormone in the female body is estrogen and progesterone. As a girl’s body transforms into an adult woman the menstrual cycle begins. A certain level of fat is needed for ovulation. Simultaneously, women reach their maximum height sooner. Boys may grow slower, but at the end of the Tanner stages have more height. The boy’s body goes through strength spurts. The growth of the gonads induces strength spurts that occur in males during puberty. Women do not gain strength spurts from their endocrionological changes. During men’s strength spurt the chest and shoulders will broaden. The trunk of the male body also becomes more pronounced.  Added muscle mass and bone density increases male physical optimum. Women will not gain advantages in terms of the change. Testosterone does have benefit to physical fitness capacity. This explains why a female athlete who uses anabolic steroids can see dramatic results with a minimal dosage. Steroids are synthetic deviates of testosterone.

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Standing long jump performance based on sex and age. The gap becomes more pronounced around the age of 16 when males are going through their strength spurt.

   Growth hormone makes the body grow for both men and women. The best period for muscle growth is between the ages 15 and 25. After age 25 muscle mass gradually declines in adults.Hormones also effect behavior. It cannot be ignored that men’s higher testosterone levels may have a correlation to competitiveness. Sports by nature are very competitive, which may explain why men are more drawn to such activities. Endocrinology or biology cannot provide an answer to why there are more men in sports. It must be realized that women are either discouraged or at times excluded from certain areas of the sports world. Saying that it is merely the endocrine system and the psychological effects of it is not enough to tell the story of the sociological implications. Men may be encouraged not to be more competitive, rather take dangerous risks. Both biology and sociology can explain why men seek more adventure and peril. While this provides for a life rich in experience, it also means a shorter one. Men are more likely to die from high risk behaviors. The endocrine system does not only effect the organs of the body, but behavior as well.

             Perspiration serves to cool off the human body when exerted and in an environment of high temperature. Surprisingly, women and men cool off differently. Women under intense exertion do not cool off as efficiently. This makes maintaining energy more of a challenge. Studies show that women respond differently to heat. However, there is also evidence that how body responds to heat may be independent of biological sex. It is possible that people with smaller body size reduce heat by increasing blood circulation in the body. Larger people may be more reliant on perspiration to reduce heat.

sweaty-woman-workout-clothes_2.jpgsweaty-woman-workout-clothes_2_0 What can be extrapolated from various studies is that women, being smaller would be more reliant on increased blood circulation. If such a theory is correct about body size correlation, then that mean female runners would have to adjust their training method. Understanding the biological and physical differences allows for a fitness program that can be tailored specifically for a woman’s physiology.  Under mild heat conditions thirst increases to replace the water lost in sweat. Glands that are on the skin secrete sweat and the liquid will evaporate there by cooling the body’s surface. The blood vessels of the skin dilate, which increases blood flow. This gives the appearance of the skin look red ( sometimes referred to as “flushed” ) . Dealing with temperature changes in the body and environment is a factor that an athlete has to consider when in competition.

         Athletic competition is not solely about the physical prowess or skill; there is a mental element. The desire and motivation to compete and remain consistent with plans takes an immense amount of mental strength. There may be points in which frustration and lack of enthusiasm may hinder an athlete’s involvement and performance. Injuries or a series of major losses can have a psychological effect. One of the reasons sports psychology has grown is to teach athletes coping mechanisms for setbacks or to aid in rehabilitation from injuries. Keeping the competitive spirit and having team building strategies makes a difference in performance. Women have to unlearn certain behaviors that were taught to them at a young age. It has changed to a degree, but girls are not raised to be competitive. Girls are not taught to be confident in their abilities or to have high self-esteem. Even women who reach the apex of their field may still have feelings of self doubt. The only way for a woman to overcome this is to relinquish the restrictive and self imposed behavior taught in accordance with cultural gender roles. The traditional view is that women should not be ambitious, competitive, or assert themselves. These are dated notions, but they still persist in society. The mental gap can be fully closed with the female athlete. This can only happen with building enough confidence and reducing the fear of risk.

        A common error is to assume that men are the better athletes based on sex differences. This is incorrect for the following reasons. For a longtime women were cast as biological inferiors. This was not true as exercise physiology demonstrates. Women with training can see improvement in their physical fitness capacity. The challenge is having more studies that are focused on women’s athletic performance. A majority of exercise physiology research focuses mostly on male athletes. This means women are not given the best information on how to train based on their anatomical and biological structure. There has been change, but it will take time to redress particular disparities. Women were excluded from a multitude of professional sports. Only in recent decades have their numbers been growing. An examination of sports performances shows that women’s records have improved compared to their predecessors of the 20th century. The performance gap may not close between men and women, but it may get smaller. Women’s performance is based  relative to their size. One would not call a smaller man an inferior athlete. The image of women being less capable in sports has been part of its long misogynistic history. However, women have shown that they are not only capable they can be entertaining.

It simply makes no sense for a woman to vexed that her husband progresses faster in an exercises regimen. This is why there are weight classes in particular sports to allows for people of various sizes to compete. Otherwise only the largest people would dominate sports. Women should not compare themselves with men, rather focus on reaching there own goals. There may be frustration that it takes longer to see the fruits of one’s labor, but that makes the accomplishment more gratifying. While Kindal Boyle states ” sadly ladies here’s the truth..” in regards to physical differences there should be a reminder of the growing presence of  strong women. The female body is remarkable in the fact that it is capable of birth and athletic feats that centuries ago many would have thought impossible. It was thought that pregnancy would hinder women’s athletic performance and that women could not regain performance prior to gestation. That has been discredited. Although women will have a harder time reaching a particular fitness level, women make significant progress compared to starting point. Considering the fitness level, size,  or genetics of a woman’s husband it is possible that she may end up stronger.There is one way in which women have more strength than men. Longevity women surpass men on average. Instead of competing with each other exercise regimens should be done for fun and improvement of health. Couples can benefit by be aware of each others health.

 

 

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Lifting Revolution: Ten Reasons Why Your Husband Will Always Be Stronger and Faster Than You

Noami Osaka Wins US Open

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Noami Osaka became the first Japanese woman to win the US Open defeating longtime champion Serena Williams. The match was a controversial one, due to the actions of the umpire in the match. Williams protested the penalty ruling. History was made with this match as Osaka became the first Japanese Woman to win a Grand Slam. Serena Williams although victory eluded her still has performed entertaining matches. Child birth and complications from recovery have been a challenge for Williams, yet she was able to make a stunning comeback. Osaka represents a new face of Japan. Normally, the Japanese nation is seen as  racially homogeneous and not accepting of mixed raced citizens. So far, it seems that the Japanese press is embracing Osaka’s success. This could have a positive impact on race relations in Japan. The country needs a victory with the turbulence of the Shinzo Abe premiership, the tensions with North Korea, the economy, and a more powerful China. Williams and Osaka should both be praised for producing a great match, but also increasing the profile of women’s sports. Both the US and Japanese press have been covering the match extensively. These two tennis champions will confront one another again and it will be more intense.

Noami Osaka Wins US Open

“Olympics in Barcelona” Pulitzer Prize Photograph (1993)

Nigerian runners

This photograph taken in 1992 was of the Nigerian women’s 400 meter relay team by Ken Geiger and William Snyder. They were covering the Olympics for the Dallas Morning News. What appears to be a celebration of victory was not because the athletes won. They performed better than they had expected. Normally, athletes are frustrated with any placing that is not first place. The special element about this photograph that it captures both the joy and comradery  among members of a sports team. The hugs and embrace show that this was a collective effort. There is also a social and political significance to this photograph. Female athletes by this time were getting more coverage in newspapers compared to the previous decades of the 20th century. The press in sports reporting mostly covered men. It was even more rare that people of color were covered in  Western mainstream media. Nigeria was a country that was subject to British colonial rule until independence in 1960. When Nigeria began sending athletes to the Olympics it was a symbol of national unity and pride. The Nigerian women’s team not only was good news for the nation, but provided a powerful image young girls could aspire to. This photograph was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1993.

“Olympics in Barcelona” Pulitzer Prize Photograph (1993)

Daily Mail: Bodybuilders More Likely To Be Sexist (2012 )

Bodybuilders More Likely to be Sexist

The University of Westminster carried out a survey in 2012 asking male bodybuilders their opinions in regards to sex relations. It was published in the journal The Psychology of Men and Masculinity. Certain questions and statements were asked and the conclusion was that bodybuilders were more sexist. This seems like a gross exaggerated generalization. However, it does reveal that there are some sexist conviction present in sports and fitness culture. The men surveyed were probably ones who agreed with a more strict view of gender roles and a position that women’s freedom should be limited.   The men who were serious into muscle building activities were more likely to agree with positions such as ” I  feel women flirt with men just to tease or hurt them.” Drinking they found was an unattractive habit for women. They also believed that the only attractive women were thin ones and appearance is the only important thing a woman should achieve. What such men are doing is making themselves into hyper-masculine stereotypes. The more the desire for a muscular body the study found, the more sexist attitudes the men had. This study has multiple problems, but it has legitimate points. While it is known that stereotypical images or ideas are harmful to women, rarely is it discussed the harm of gender stereotypes on men. The study also has one major flaw is that it did not explore other areas of the bodybuilding and fitness subculture. Women were not surveyed who are active in the sport. The unfortunate aspect about this survey is that they assume that only men engage in bodybuilding activities. Someone just reading this article without prior knowledge would have a major distortion about a person’s motivation for being in the sport or what it is.

              The survey is limited. Women who compete or lift for recreation were not even mentioned. If this study wanted to make a point about sexism, it would have asked how women are treated in the gyms, sport, and general public in the survey. Many times women are met with hostility from their male counterparts. This is not just from individuals, but institutions or other public spheres. Female bodybuilders have very few contests to compete in and sponsorships   are limited. The IFBB has cancelled the Ms. Olympia and Ms. International contest. This represents the institutional discrimination in the sport. On a more personal level, women may be deterred from using certain facilities of gyms. Women who were bodybuilding in the past often described how they were either prevented from getting access to the weight rooms or pressured into going into the more “feminine” exercise session classes such as aerobics. Today there is a level of defacto  sex segregation  in gyms with mostly men in weight rooms or women running on treadmills. Women are constantly warned “not to get too big” or “don’t look too strong.” There are a portion of men who feel that women should not have any involvement is sports or fitness at all.

The survey seemed to forget that women are bodybuilders too. 

The general public’s reaction can vary. while all reactions are not negative, many have sexist overtones. They can range from “women should not look like this” or “they look like men.” Such vituperation also involves homophobic and transphobic rhetoric, exposing other biases and forms of intolerance. Mainly, these more negative reactions are from people who think women should not do the same activities men do or have the same rights.  It would make more sense to ask how the muscular men treat their strong female colleagues. It most likely would follow similar ostracism that comes from the general public. It would be interesting to see what the female version of this survey would produce. Could muscular women have feelings of misandry? This term refers to prejudice or hatred of men. Often women who engage in strength sports or bodybuilding are criticized as invaders in a traditionally male domain. They are not there for the love of the sport, they just come to promote gender antagonism with men.  Radical feminists promoted the position of being antagonistic to men while simultaneously competing with in all spheres of life. The majority of the second wave feminists just wanted legal and political equality, while the third wave feminists of the present adopted some of the radical feminist ideas. It dubious that women get involved in the sport to gain power to abuse men in some way. Most women who compete have either been serious athletes in other sports or started lifting then decided to compete. That does not mean women would not hold some misandry, but the idea of women “invading” male spaces seems ludicrous. Without examining these elements the study has limitations.

              The sample size of the study was too small. Those interviewed were based in the UK and were white males. The problem with that is that white males are not the standard for all of humanity. Men and women are active in fitness who have various ethnic, religious, class, and cultural backgrounds. The study solely focused on white males. There is also a bias in terms of national origin. These were mostly white British males who took the survey.

Excluding or ignoring other men of various backgrounds makes the study seem limited. This presents a very stereotypical image of the bodybuilding and fitness world. Fitness and bodybuilding has become an international phenomenon in which competitors from all over the world compete in IFBB contests.  This sample may also just demonstrate that white males have more of a sense of entitlement. If a white supremacist society favors Europeans over other groups, it is no wonder they would hold oppressive beliefs. Now, it is possible that other ethnic groups would hold oppressive views of women. Many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America lag behind in terms of gender equality. A more reliable survey would have to be taken by men in various gyms and possibly in numerous countries to make such a claim that bodybuilders or men into bodybuilding are more sexist. There are many reasons why men and women would participate in such exercise or sports activities. This survey cannot be completely dismissed, because it exposes a major problem of  sexist macho culture and female behavior than enables it indirectly.

        The bodybuilding sport and weightlifting activities have a sexist macho culture. It emphasizes stereotypical masculine image of the stoic, powerful, and unfeeling strongman. A large portion of the sexist macho culture disparages women,while simultaneous putting emphasis on sexual conquest. A real man in this bizarre subculture brags about how many women they have had sexual relations with. What creates this unhealthy mode of thought are the misogynistic nature of society. A sex obsessed culture that objectifies women creates this behavior. Then their is the element of female behavior that enable this cycle. The survey reveals the relationship status of the men. The majority were single men ( 38.5% ), there were men who were dating (31.2 %), and others were married ( 23.9%) . The higher portion of  single men with negative beliefs about women and their obsessive muscle building activities indicates a long history of female rejection. Getting a relationship or getting married is harder for men, simply based on the fact women may be more hyper-selective in their choices. As unfortunate as this may be women are attracted to men of power doubtless of their ethical character. There can be multiple forms of status either financial or based on appearance. The society has taught women to either choose a man with either muscles of money.

Serenea    AAM

The men with the most resources and power are normally going to have the most women. Despite claims women just want nice men this does not seem to reflect their courtship or marriage choices. 

This may encourage men to behave in an unhealthy way. The obsessive drive for status could result in extreme stress and heath issues. Men may be forced into archetypes such as the rich playboy or the hyper-masculine he-man. As much as third wave feminists condemn what they refer to as toxic masculinity, a large portion of women find such attributes attractive. The nice guy may actually finish last in this competition.This also puts women at risk for being trapped in potentially abusive or dangerous relationships. Men who do not fit these images of powerful man may either be more frustrated or attempt to emulate  a narrow paradigm of masculine identity. Knowing that women may find these stereotypical attributes attractive, this may induce men to get obsessive about muscle building activities.  To blame men solely for such behavior would not be fair. Women have also contributed to this unfortunate phenomenon. Sexist macho culture is a relic of the past, when traditional gender roles were rigidly followed. It promotes absolute male authority in society, family, and the wider public sphere. Feminism challenged women’s secondary status and decades later women find themselves in more positions of power. This has not only caused anger in some men, but also a question of masculine identity. If male power was to be natural why is it that women can be powerful too? While women have become a larger presence in the workforce and public life, it was thought sports and the realm of physical power women could not penetrate. Yet, they did and it generates vituperative responses.

The sexist macho culture does not accept strong women, because it believes women should be controlled. A muscular woman just reminds men with such negative attitudes that women are as capable as they are. There is the feeling that women have invaded male spaces and it has produced certain reactions. A sexist man may have a problem with having a female boss and project  their frustration in the sexist macho culture of the gym.Society does not give men an opportunity to expose their vulnerability or possible depression. The moment a man does that sexist rhetoric is directed at them. Men who cannot cope are either called “sissies” “fags” “pussies” or “wimps.” The most ludicrous response to to men who are struggling psychologically is to “man up.”  Pressure is also coming from a more gender antagonistic based third wave feminism. This group does not want equality, rather favors a female centered society in all aspects of life. They merely want to replace patriarchy with matriarchy. Men who do not hold sexist beliefs are even targets of the new form of radical feminism.  This also explains the rise of men’s rights, MGTOW, and incels. Men who feel isolated or rejected by society and large numbers of women have turned to extreme misogyny. It does not solely have to do with the fault of society or personal prejudice. Extreme third wave feminism is a catalyst as well as the unintended shifts in sex politics. The sexist macho culture must be challenged in the sports world. It should be accepted that women can be strong and men can sometimes cry. A healthy regulation of emotions will promote better mental and physical health.

        The mass media may also share the blame for this distorted view of body image and behavior. The concept of the ideal male body has changed overtime to one that looks more muscular.While it can be seen who body image conformity harms women, this phenomenon is ignored when discussing men. The consumption of television and social media are contributors to much of the body image dissatisfaction.

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Social media has allowed for higher rates of image and entertainment consumption.
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TV is another medium in which people see ideal body images. 

 The study focused on the gender dynamics change as well as the change in media consumption.   Viren Swarmi researcher on this study stated ”  we’re also arguing that those oppressive beliefs directed at women also have an impact on men’s own body images, specifically their drive for muscularity…” which is only part of this story. The producers of fitness and bodybuilding materials want people to buy their products. Many advertisements either work on people’s desires or target individuals with low self-esteem relative to their appearance. Men and women having negative feelings about their bodies are more willing to spend a significant amount for improving their image.The image obsession fits into a gender role script. Men are strong, women are weak. Even though this does not represent reality it such gender role scripts are shown through print and digital media.

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The image of the muscular man and thin woman have been promoted as the primary body ideals.

Women face higher rates of bulima and anorexia, however men are now having another psychological disorder known as muscle dysmorphia. Similar to anorexia or bulima, this psychological disorder is when a person thinks they do not have enough muscle and become obsessed with becoming more muscular to an unhealthy degree.This may even encourage men to use a number of anabolic androgenic steroids to achieve a particular physique. Men and women can suffer from anyone of these body image or eating disorders, but the sex difference in rates reveals much about the culture.  Men and women have different idealized bodies relative to the gender role script. Man is supposed to be powerful and dominating, while women are passive. Psychology has shown that such body images disorders are mental conditions, which require therapy. It has only been recently that scholars have moved away from the concept of body images issues being a female only problem. The consumption of media does have an influence on behavior. Children are more susceptible to media. Boys raised in a society in which women are not valued, are going to carry such views into adulthood. Boys seeing stereotypical images of males will most likely imitate certain behaviors. Girls who see images that present women as less than human are going to internalize negative images. There has to be a change in the way girls and boys are raised. Simultaneously. there also needs to be more discretion in regards to what media is consumed. Men and women must be conscious of the materials they watch or consume and what they expose their children to.

       This study only reveals a small portion of gender bias and sexism in fitness culture. The mistake is that its conclusion is too general. It states that bodybuilders are more sexist. Men do not need to be bodybuilders to hold anti-woman beliefs. Religious institutions and business still hold sexist convictions in their organizations. There are many place in the world in which women do not have access to employment or education. Women’s reproductive rights are either under attack in the US, Ireland, or Argentina. Yemen still engages in the practice of child brides. Obviously, women’s oppression or social circumstance cannot be the cause of a small group of men. It is attributed to a large power structure that is legitimized by supremacist beliefs. Casting muscle men as nasty brutes seems to fit a narrative of the past. William Sheldon’s concept of constitutional psychology basically stated the personality type could be determined by somatotype.  Mesomorphs were the more aggressive and violent type. This seems to subtly suggested in the study. The pugnacious jock image is a label that is placed on men who are highly involved in fitness. The only way to  vanquish negative images or stereotypes is through reform. It is time that the fitness world relinquish its sexist mach culture in favor of a more open atmosphere. Masculine identity must be more than just a one dimensional stereotype. This study although used a good method of survey, still has bias. Men working out does not always relate to low self-esteem or a pathological hatred of women. Some do this for fun, serious athletic competition, or it is a dedicated hobby.

Daily Mail: Bodybuilders More Likely To Be Sexist (2012 )