Daily Mail: Are Women Really the Weaker Sex? The Intriguing Medical Facts That Settle the Oldest Argument of All (2008)

 

The Weaker Sex ? What Medicine Tells Us

The term weaker sex was a general statement that women were both mentally and physically inferior to men. Historically, biomedical science also made this assumption and as a result women’s health did suffer. While it is obvious there are biological and physiological differences among the sexes, this does not indicate either superiority or inferiority. The biological sexist normally use men’s greater strength as an example of male superiority. Even more ludicrous is the argument that men’s mental capacities are greater. On average men are  physically stronger, but that does not mean women cannot be strong. Intelligence varies from person to person regardless of sex. Arguments for biological superiority lack cogency. The frailty myth still continues to be a part of the consciousness of  in the study of medicine and biology. Loweri Turner makes the wrong conclusion in her investigation. She claims ”  overall, when you add up the number of individuals affected by all these conditions, women are the weaker sex.” Turner asks the question which sex is better built to withstand disease. The assumption is that men with their greater physical strength are better suited to survive and avoid disease. The fact is women will live longer on average even when health conditions and environment are optimal. Even in countries with low live expectancy women still out live men. Women have more durational strength. Sex differences in biology and physiology do have a impact on health and how the body reacts to disease.

          Bone health becomes a concern as we age. Men have greater bone density contributing to more physical strength. It is not just the muscles, but the frame where the muscles are placed. Women’s lower bone mass and density means that they are more vulnerable to osteoporosis or possible stress fractures. Men can be at risk for bone diseases under certain conditions. According to  Professor Ignac Fogelman men can get osteoporosis from genetic factors or long term use of cotiosteroids. Excessive drinking and alcoholism could be contributors. Women can lose bone mass during menopause due to a decrease in oestrogen levels. Hip fracture becomes even more of a concern. Men and woman are about as equally vulnerable to hip fracture. The reason why the numbers for women look high is that men do not live long enough to get certain aliments. Osteoarthritis refers to when the cartilage in your bones wears down overtime. This can strike at nay joint, but commonly occurs in the knees, hands, hips, and spine. Women are more effected, because they have less bone mass and density to work with.

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Osteoarthritis will overtime erode cartilage
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Osteoarthritis can effect a multitude of joints.
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Weight training or resistance training can help maintain bone and muscle mass.

Women are not doomed to having bone related diseases unless they take certain steps. Having a proper amount of calcium and vitamin D can maintain bone health. Exercise such as load bearing exercises are important. Women need to incorporate weights into their exercise regimen. Knowing the risk factors and the nature of the diseases can aid in prevention. Race and body type can put certain individuals at risk. Asian and white women may have a higher risk factor compared to other groups. Thin people may be at risk considering they would have lower bone mass. Examining bone does not provide enough to say they men are tougher in fighting disease. The only way to fully assess that is to have men live longer in the nonagenarian stage. The what this reveals from a biomedical perspective is that women must focus and be aware of bone health more so than their male counterparts.

    The muscular system requires attention in regards to an individual’s overall health. Not only is this important to average people, but professional athletes. Women have made their mark in the fitness and sports world in such a short period of time. Some even thought that women would one day be taking over: ” there has been a lot of controversy in the sports world about whether men’s apparent physical advantage is on the wane.” It seemed as if women were breaking many records in the 1980s. The erroneous perception was that women were going to catch up to men in Olympic athletic performance. Some attribute this to performance enhancing drug use, but this would not have caused a major change due to the fact it did not alter women genetically. Drug use is higher among male athletes, so the records will never be complete representation of natural human performance. Women do not need drugs to reach impressive athletic performance. Turner notes: “a look at the bulging muscles sported by some female Wimbledon champions proves that female sportswomen aren’t the delicate flowers they once were – some experts have argued that women will eventually equal men’s speed and strength.”  Its not just female tennis players, women athletes from various sports a displaying bigger and more powerful physiques than would not have been imaginable before.

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Women’s sports performance as a whole has remained stable since 1983. There is a 10 % difference in athletic performance in certain events in the Olympics. While men are on average stronger, they do not have a monopoly on physical strength. Women’s bodies are different, but that does not make them inferior. Women’s muscles respond to weight training stimuli in a similar fashion. They are capable of muscular hypertrophy, yet there is a difference in physical fitness capacity. The muscle cells as far as anatomists and exercise physiologists know are the same in both men and women. Muscle contraction and physiology operates in a similar manner between the sexes. Strength also is related to muscle fiber type. Type II muscle fibers are better designed for more power compared to more endurance based type I. The amount of type II muscle fiber can vary depending on genetics, but on average males have more type II.

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Men have more of their strength concentrated in their upper body.
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These are the capabilities of the muscle fibers
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Bigger muscles do not always mean more strength. A weightlifter could be stronger than a bodybuilder. Margie Martin here is training for sculpting a physique, rather than building strength.

The average woman may not equal a man in strength,but the female athlete can. Sometimes they can be stronger depending on height and total weight.Male muscle is not  better than female muscle, rather it is a difference in total mass. This does effect agility. Smaller bodies are not the most agile ones. This is more dependent on how fast one can accelerate and decelerate muscles. Men may have an advantage according to exercise  physiologist Harry Brennan. Women seeing as they have looser joints have more flexibility. This would be useful in sports such as gymnastics. When looking at strength it should be examined from a point of power scaling. The weakest woman would not have the same strength as the weakest man. The strongest woman would not be able to perform physically on the same level as the strongest man. There are those rare exceptions. Obviously, being female does automatically make a person weak. One benefit related to women’s endocrine function is that women are more fatigue resistant and possibly can recover faster from a training session. Estrogen B may act as a form of protection to muscular tissue. If examined from the initial starting point of a weightlifting program, women react well to strength building exercise. It still is unknown what women’s full potential is physically. Only when more research is done on female athletic performance can that question be answered. The muscle quality can be the same for both men and women the difference is in total power. When seeing the numerous weightlifters, bodybuilders, and crossfit athletes the weaker sex concept  is another falsehood. Besides physical strength, there is durational strength. Men and women sometimes react differently to other aliments or health conditions.

        Cancer can effect a person differently depending on their biological sex. Colon and lung cancer are the most common cancers that strike both men and women. Cancer by medical definition is the abnormal growth of cells. The result may be malignant tumors that appear on the human body. There are an estimated 100 types of cancer that exist. Sometimes cancer can be called malignancy. Colon cancer can occur when polyps in the large intestine begin accumulate. Polyps are not all cancerous, but some can become malignant.  Colorectal cancer refers to malignancy in both the colon as well as rectum. Diet and life style choice do play a major role in the chances of a person getting such as disease.The symptoms include blood in stool, loss of weight, weakness, fatigue, abdominal discomfort, and irregular bowl habits such as constipation and diarrhea.

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The development of colon cancer. 
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Smoking can increase the risk of lung cancer.
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There is also a psychological aspect to health. People engage in self destructive behaviors to cope with the stress and challenges of life. Drinking and smoking may provide some type of mental relief.

Men tend to get more colon cancer compared to women. Lung cancer it seems also may effect more men. This has to do with lifestyle rather than biology . Historically, men have constituted the most of the consumers of cigarettes and cigars. Women do not do this behavior as much. Being overweight has been theorized to increase the likelihood of developing a certain type of cancer. The strange aspect of this is that one would assume that overweight women would have more cancer. Overweight men are according to Cancer Research UK are more at risk. Lucy Boyd an epidemiologist working with Cancer Research UK  believes there is a hormonal factor that protects women. Oestrogen has an effect on insulin. When having excess weight the body produces more insulin. There may be some indications in endocrine function that may explain this disparity. So far, it appears that men are more vulnerable to cancer.

      Coronary heart disease can be linked to high fat diets, lack of exercise, and  obesity . The United States and the UK face a public health problem with more citizens suffering from this disease of the circulatory system. As stated in the article ”  true, more men get it – but it also affects millions of women (1.5 million men, compared with 1.1 million women).” However, just because more men get it does not mean women cannot suffer myocardical infraction. The false perception of heart issues being “men’s diseases” needs to be discarded. Heart diseases can be prevent with proper diet and exercise. Weight management also should be factored into overall heart health. Women may fare better in heart related conditions due to hormones. The changes during menopause provide some indication of oestrogen’s  ability to protect the heart. Women tend to have myocardical infraction after menopause. At that stage, women’s oestrogen levels decrease.  This does not mean women who have not gone through menopause  will not get heart disease.

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The basic anatomy of the heart as shown in artistic rendition. Just like a highway it can get jammed or blocked leading to devastating consequences.
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Regular exercise can protect heart health.
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Diet also plays a role in heart and circulatory system health. High fat and sugar consumption can increase blood pressure.

Failure to maintain the health of the circulatory system may lead to other chronic health issues. Stroke can be lethal and if not treated properly could cause major damage to the brain. Environment once more can play a role. Sedentary life styles have given way to an increase in heart related illness. The heart is made of cardiac muscle which is also referred to as myocardium. Coronary heart disease causes the coronary arteries to become very narrow. As a result, blood flow is limited to the heart. Symptoms can include chest pains and even heart attack. There are some parts of the body that can be equally effected by both sexes which are the eyes and the ears.  As far as medical professionals know, there is no sex difference in ear and eye problems. Age causes changes in the eyes and ears. Hearing may become more difficult and eyesight also can become worse. Both men and women should be conscious of heart health, but there should be more focus on how biological differences effect outcomes.

        The brain could be the mots complex organ and even object in the known universe. Understanding mental health and diseases related to the brain becomes a challenge. There is a sex difference in mental health. Men are negatively effected by higher rates of schizophrenia. Jane Harris  who works with a charity Rethink states ”  up to 40 per cent more men are diagnosed with schizophrenia than women – and their symptoms tend to be more severe and treatment less effective.” Boys are more likely do be diagnosed with autism and Asperger’s syndrome.  Women according to Marjorie Wallace, founder of mental health charity Sane, are more likely to suffer from depression. There are multiple theories about why mental illness exists. There are genetic factors and environmental ones. Some have theorized that boys exposure to testosterone during their development in the uterus makes them vulnerable to certain brain diseases. Although there are some proclamations or ideas about this disparity that are not proven. Jane Harris claims ”  men are more likely to do things that put them at risk of developing schizophrenia – such as smoking cannabis. ” There has not been a definite link between cannabis use and extreme mental disorders. Addiction itself could be counted as a mental disorder and drug abuse is merely a product of that.  Another baseless claim was “medical research shows that heavy cannabis users are up to four times more likely to develop psychosis.”It seems unlikely that people with extreme psychosis are cannabis users. For so long, there have been myths propagated about this drug that the public can no longer distinguish fact from fiction. The use of marijuana poses limited health risk compared to cigarettes and alcohol. Gradually, the medical establishment are seeing its potential as a means of fighting disease and chronic pain. It is stated that women are more effected by certain mental health disorders such as depression overall. Yet, there is one factor that seems to challenge this accepted belief. Men have higher rates of suicide. This can be attributed to the fact men select more violent and effective methods to kill themselves. Even if that factor was not present the rate would be higher. Young men between the ages of 15 and 35 have been taking their own lives in the United States higher than since the year 2000. When examined from this perspective adults, children, and the elderly can be vulnerable to some form of mental distress or anguish at various periods during their life.

       Women may be more vulnerable to autoimmune diseases and disorders . What these diseases are is when the immune system attacks healthy cells. This makes it more difficult for the body to fight infections or harmful pathogens. Women are more likely to get the autoimmune disorder  rheumatoid arthritis. Women may have more vulnerability to hypothyroidism. There could be a possible hormonal reason for this. It has been noted that during pregnancy the conditions of rheumatoid arthritis improve.

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All microorganisms are not harmful to the human body. Bacteria that is present in the stomach plays a role in gastrointestinal health. Lymphocytes and white blood cells have to attack pathogens that could cause harm to the human body. White blood cells operate in the blood stream and other sections of the body. Lymph nodes are cells that must recognizes pathogens that are a threat to health. Autoimmune diseases can effect the skin, digestive system, nervous system, skeletal system, or other parts of the body which have healthy cells that are attacked by mistake. The examination of women and autoimmune disease is not given as much attention in women’s health. The reason for this disparity based on sex could be that there simply has not been enough research. The problem is that the medical establishment may think both sexes react in similar manners to diseases. This may not be a case of female frailty, rather lack of medical knowledge about sexual dimporphism’s relation to health outcomes.

       Reading the text, one would come to the conclusion that women are the weaker sex. However this lacks cogency when seeing total life expectancy. Women even under the best environmental circumstances live longer than men on average. This is seen in developed countries. Even in developing nations women still live longer. So, the conclusion by Lowri Turner ” overall when you add up the number of individuals affected by these conditions women are the weaker sex” is not accurate. If women live longer statistically, that increases the possibility of getting certain diseases. If this were to be a genuine test of strength or durability, men would have to have life expectancy be equal to women’s.

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Kane Tanaka has been confirmed one of the oldest people living in the world. She is 116. There have been a few men to reach their hundreds, but women outnumber them.
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Exercise can help contribute to a healthy body. Some health disparities can be overcome by basic lifestyle changes. An diet low in sugar or high fat can ensure better circulatory system health and weight management.
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On average men are stronger, but that does not mean every man is stronger than every woman. Women through weight training can increase their strength.  Strength is no longer seen as a male only attribute.

There is a consequence of living longer. The quality of life mad decline, if there are multiple illnesses a person gets. Cancer and cognitive decline become growing concerns with age. Dementia and are more lethal form of it Alzheimer’s disease may become a public health crisis when large portions of the population become senior citizens. This may harm women the most. Besides genetics that determine life span, environment also has a great impact. Living in a war zone, lack of adequate healthcare, poor diet, or limited reproductive rights can do enormous harm to women’s health. Despite this women seem to be the long lasting survivors. The myth that women are biological inferiors continues to be propagated, even though science has shown there is no such thing as biological superiority. An experiment or question of that sort cannot be measured nor determined. Sexists try to use physical strength as a measure of male superiority, but this crumbles when seeing women’s sports. While records are not equal to male performance, it demonstrates with enough training women can acquire physical prowess. As for health maintenance and outcomes, the medical establishment seems divided. Two factions fall between an emphasis on prevention and the other determined to find cures. Currently, it seems that there is more support for prevention for cures, rather than doing extensive biomedical research for cures. Both should be pursued simultaneously as a means of disease control. Yet, more medical professional appear to favor prevention or new treatments  ignoring quests for cures. While there are multiple diseases that are viral, bacterial,  or genetically inherited women seem to be handle chronic illness. Human evolution may have given women an edge in survival for the sake of producing offspring. Realizing this, scientifically there the idea of a weaker sex is not existent.

Daily Mail: Are Women Really the Weaker Sex? The Intriguing Medical Facts That Settle the Oldest Argument of All (2008)

RIP Gabriele Grunewald (1986-2019)

The track and field world awoke to some unfortunate news on June 11, 2019. Gabriele Grunewald has passed away after a struggle with cancer. Although she suffered with adenoid cystic carinoma that did not stop her from being a competitive athlete. She turned pro in 2010 and remained active in running up until the end of her life.

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RIP Gabriele Grunewald (1986-2019)

Brandi Chastain Celebrates Scoring Fifth Kick in the Penalty Shoot (1999)

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This photograph has become an icon in women’s sports history. The 1999 Women’s World Cup saw an American victory over China with Brandi Chastain’s fifth kick in the penalty shoot. She was so elated that in the moment she took off her jersey  showing her sports bra and some impressively muscular arms. Normally, taking off the jersey in jubilation was something male soccer players did, but Brandi broke that taboo. This photograph did not win any major awards, but has been referenced in popular entertainment mediums. The 1990s was an important transition for women’s sports. American women had benefited immensely from Title IX and it created a generation of  amazing athletes. The female athlete now had an international stage and could be seen by millions of people through television. Barndi benefited from Title IX, which enabled her to develop as a soccer player. The Women’s World Cup began in 1991 and continues to this day. Women have made significant progress in sports, yet challenges still remain in terms of equal pay and media exposure.  Brandi Chastain’s  performance and the US team as a whole was an important promotion of women’s sports in media and the wider popular culture.

Brandi Chastain Celebrates Scoring Fifth Kick in the Penalty Shoot (1999)

Spot Me Girl : Do Men Like Bulky and Muscular Women ?

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Do Men Like Bulky and Muscular Women ?

Spot Me Girl asked the question do men like muscular and bulky women in response to a study examining men’s preferred body types. These studies do show a portion of men favor thinner body types. Yet, it should be realized that standards of beauty can change over time. Men do not choose the thinnest body type because it symbolizes health or fertility. Mass media representations present an image of what is considered beautiful. If men were really looking for the most fertile woman, it would be one with a higher body fat percentage. This means ovulation would not be a challenge. There has been a paradigm shift with a growing body image positive movement.  However, it may be spreading to the women who are developing their bodies to their maximum physical potential. There are women who are no longer afraid to get more muscular or “bulky.” Some women may fear it or even repudiate it completely. Others who are more open minded about what women should be allowed to do have no problem with it. The wonderful aspect of this is that women are not doing this for the sake of looking good for men. They are doing it for fun or becoming prominent professional athletes. The assumption would be that most men would find this repulsive. The opposite seems to be true. There has been a growing fandom and attraction to female muscle that was induced by the internet and social media. Do men like female muscle ? The answer is yes and it could be more than previously thought.

           The term muscular and bulky are used interchangeably. Bulky implies large lumps of mass. This is incorrect to say when discussing someone would has sculpted a physique.  Mass is not the only aspect of building a physique. Symmetry, definition, and conditioning must be given equal attention. Muscular simply means a person who has a significant portion of  muscle tissue in relation to body composition. Physical activity can cause muscular hypertrophy,but depending on which sport is played it is not the main objective. A track and field athlete is not attempting to build the biggest muscles, rather just increase their running speed. The bodybuilder attempts to build muscle size for aesthetic rather than functional purposes. Terms such as bulky and toned really do not have a scientific basis in exercise physiology. There only use could be to describe the degrees of muscular development on the human body. These could be sub-classifications of the mesomorphic body type. Toned is the lowest level in which their is some muscle with partial definition.  There is the athletic body type which is more of an intermediate between toned and  bulk. This body is not thin, but it is not large either.

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Toned — Some muscle with a little definition
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The athletic body – Muscles that are developed, but serve a functional purpose.
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Bulk – Large amounts of muscle with definition

Bulk is the highest level in muscular development. These terms are merely generic to describe levels of muscular hypertrophy. It also lets one know how gendered language is used in the fitness world. Traditionally, it was men that “bulked” and women that would “tone.” There is a long history of attempting to exclude women from physical activity, sports, and fitness. Only in recent history this has been reversed. There remains such a stigma around women and muscle that even muscular women do not call themselves muscular. Phrases like ” I’m toned” or “just athletic” just show how women can sometimes be uncomfortable with the body they built. It seems that some men may like a little muscle to a degree, but when it reaches a certain level it becomes unacceptable. Everyone has a preference or taste in attractiveness , but it becomes sexist if there is a demand that all women look alike and behave the same.  Vituperation and insults for no legitimate reason just demonstrated how ingrained sexism is in culture and society. Women have reached a point in which they are defining body image for themselves. The term bulky or muscular should not be seen as negative terms, but just general descriptions of muscular development.

           At one time there was a sex segregation code at gyms and athletic spaces. Women stuck to cardio and men lifted weights. This unenforced code of sex segregation limited women’s physical potential and health. The cultural change is that gradually the female athlete has become more accepted. Prior to Title IX, athletic women had few opportunities to demonstrate their impressive talents. Women were excluded from Olympics competition,but by the end of the 20th century more women entered sports. By 2016 women from all over the world were competing in various sports. Having a role model or the image of strong women, radically impacts the young. It encourages them also to get involved. Simultaneously, it also allows for shift in public opinion. The more exposure and positive publicity allows for a boost in women’s sports. Instagram and Facebook allowed female athletes to get more exposure when traditional TV networks failed them. ESPN devotes very little time to the coverage of female athletes. There remains an untapped market that they refuse to engage with.

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The wonderful aspect of the rise of digital media is that the five media giants are losing control. As long as net neutrality remains protected, there is a space for exposing more original content and materials that would not be seen in mainstream media outlets. The female athlete may be experiencing more of a media segregation now, rather than a gym segregation.  Sports and fitness are now considered an activity appropriate for women.Exercise for women either mainly focused on weight loss or appearance. Gradually, women have become more interested in boosting physical fitness and sports performance. Women are not doing this to please men; it is for their own personal reasons. Despite harsh criticism, they continue to be a part of what was once a male dominated gym culture.

        Some wonder what motivates women to push themselves to such high physical levels. What is articulated by the women themselves is that it builds confidence. Feeling stronger gives some women the ability to be more confident in other areas of life. There can be a psychological change that helps women. Too often girls are not raised to be assertive or confident in their abilities. This is more of a hindrance in a world based on ruthless competition in all areas of life. Psychologically, women develop a better attitude in regards to food and body image. Women are influenced by the concept that thin is the paragon of feminine beauty and constantly do diets. Starvation diets and constant cardio is not healthy. Eating a balanced diet and exercise maintains health. Having self worth beyond physical appearance will prevent bulimia or anorexia, which are major mental health issues that disproportionately effect women. Women who build such bodies enjoy more body image confidence. This does not end body shamming which can come from both men and women. It does neutralize closed minded and philistine commentary. Women also state how they love the thrill of competition and the joy it brings them. Just like their male counterparts, they enjoy the similar benefits of physical fitness. A challenge or calling gives some people a purpose in life. Form artists, musicians, or writers there is a desire to create and challenge one’s self. The strong woman gets both a mental and physical challenge. Other women just find athletic competition fun. The games, the fans, and spectacle are events to marvel at. Personal reasons for women developing themselves to this level could be numerous, but these are the basic and most common articulated by the athletes themselves.

        Strength is important to women relative to health. As people age the body loses bone and muscle mass. Women who live longer than men must take certain health considerations into account. Lifting weights can help maintain muscle mass as you age and counter sarcopenia. Doing such exercises increases the range of motion and flexibility. Mobility can be maintained and can aid in daily activities. Carry groceries, moving objects, and getting around can be done easier. Resistance training can be an excellent method for weight loss. The more muscle developed on the body the more calories can be burned. It increases the basal metabolic rate of the body. When doing exercise only more calories will be burned.

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Osteoporosis and sarcopenia become a problem as people age. Women need to pay more attention to this seeing as they are more likely to live longer. Bone density is lower in the female body and stress fractures can be a great risk to health. Seniors who suffer broken hips may never reach the same level of mobility even with proper care. One other aspect is related to another issue of concern. Self-defense is critical for every woman. Domestic abuse, rape, sexual assault and gender based violence are prevalent. Women need means to defend themselves against male violence directed at them. Developing strength can help in certain situations, but more important is learning physical skills.  Taking a martial arts class or a self -defense class will ensure that women can be safe. The chivalrous idea that a woman needs a man to protect her does more harm than good. It is more likely that she could be abused by her intimate partner. Besides improving health, strength may also save women’s lives in dangerous situations.

      One aspect that is overlooked is that women gain a new sense of psychological well being. Confidence is something that some women lack. A body image obsessed world either shames women for looking different or ruthlessly ostracizes them. At extremes women can have mental health issues such as anorexia or bulima to gain what is considered a “perfect body.” Most women when they train say they feel better about their bodies and what they can accomplish. They move away from unhealthy starvation diets and an uncomfortable relation with food. A vicious cycle of cardio vascular exercise, purging, and fear of food is a rarely discussed women’s health issue. When women stop focusing on what society wants them to be and look like life becomes better. A balanced diet and the right amount of exercise can help with mental health. The world has been a chaotic place and some have reacted to it. Mental health is just as important as physical health and only now the medical establishment is taking it seriously. Weight training may be a method to treat anxiety, depression, or chronic stress. Finding a fun hobby can help cope under difficult life situations. There is little academic investigation into the link between exercise and improved mental health, but being involved in some activity never hurts.

         Weight training can be an effective method of weight management , but it requires a specific method . Building muscle however, is not as simple as it sounds. There are multiple factors that must be considered. Health condition and a doctor’s consultation should be the first step before embarking on a training regimen. Fitness goals should be planed before getting involved. Training for health maintenance and athletic performance are two different tasks. Knowing your somatotype should give an idea about possible training potential. Endomorphic women will have to be more conscious about how they eat. Ectmorphic women will have to attempt to increase intensity to see more muscle mass gain. Mesomorphic women who are body sculpting   for aesthetics should be mindful to keep both the upper and lower body in balance . Nutrition and diet are essential. A certain amount of protein, carbohydrates, and fats must be consumed to see effective changes in the body. Sugars and high fructose corns syrup based foods must be excluded. It is possible to lose weight by altering diet without exercise, yet with out consistency the weight comes back. Weight training ensures that enough muscle is built to burn calories. Food consumption must be adjusted due to the difference in hormones. When women consume food their bodies metabolize it into fat. This can be negated by having activity levels high enough to burn excess calories. Keeping a healthy weight is pivotal for avoiding chronic illness such as heart disease, diabetes, or stroke.

          It is no secret that there are men who love women with strength and muscle. Whether one calls it tone, athletic, or bulky it all is synonymous. Going to Google image search and typing in muscle women gives thousands of images across the internet. Websites, forums, social media accounts, and blogs are devoted entirely to athletic and muscular women. The irony is that they have limited appearance in fitness magazines and sports channel networks. Looking at the hits on blogs and websites there is clearly a large demand for muscular women. There are men from all religious, ethnic, and national backgrounds who have an interest in the athletic woman. The stereotypical image is that of a schmoe. However, there is no evidence all these men consuming this material are schmoes. There are men who just like any level of muscle on women. The misconception is that they only like strong women. Many times they should predilection for women of various body types.

There seems to be a shift in body type attraction. The closed minded element of society continues to negatively judge women on the basis of their appearance. Body image conformity seems to be a persistent form of blatant sexism that is still acceptable. There are efforts to fight back with a body positive movement. Many women who were involved in sports an even less progressive time, still went on competing even if all  the responses they got were negative. All men do not like the same type of women. If asked and if men are willing to give honest answers attraction and beauty standards vary among the population. The question is how many female muscle lovers are there ? Globally it could be immense. Many men consume materials related to the female fitness culture in secret. Sacred about what their family and friends would think they hide their websites, books, magazines, and videos of muscular women. To a person who finds this peculiar, it should not be. The athletic female body is just another type of female form. The interest is not solely a sexual one, rather a respectful admiration. The effort and dedication to reach the highest competitive levels is laudable. There is a an element of mental strength and will power that makes such women fascinating. Women’s sports and fitness is witnessing an increase in fan base coming from men. Do men like muscular women ? It seems the answer is yes, although many would not admit it.

Spot Me Girl : Do Men Like Bulky and Muscular Women ?