Happy Halloween

Around October adults and children dress up as either monsters, cartoon characters, or film characters for Halloween. It has become a major annual tradition to hold parties, have children trick or treat,  or to enjoy horror movie marathons on TV. This year is different however. More girls and women are not dressing up in the stereotypical princess or cat lady. The sale of Wonder Woman costumes have increased dramatically. This is due to the popular film that was released during the summer. Yet, it has more of a significance. It shows that female protagonist characters can be popular and have an enduring impact on popular culture. It is important that  there is a diverse range in female characters in fiction to challenge dated stereotypes and sexist beliefs. Besides a change in perspectives it is always fun to see well made costumes. There are some women who look more Wonder Woman than you could possibly imagine.

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Happy Halloween

Francesca Zappitelli Wrestler, Actor, and Filmmaker Interview On Her Movie Ballerina I Am Not

Zinnie62 Daily Vlog

Abraham Zennie interviews Francesca Zappitelli in a 43 minute video. The discussion explores women’s entry and rise into the world of professional wrestling. It is a recent entertainment phenomenon and women are becoming the main events.Other topics covered are the culture, current issues, and briefly its connection to the fitness world. Francesca Zappitelli has wrestled in various independent companies and even has done mixed wrestling for websites. She is now taking on the role of actor and filmmaker in her documentary A Ballerina I Am Not. There are many WWE stars that appear in the documentary. There seems to be the phenomenon of the physically strong woman becoming more visible in pop culture and society. There are some controversies that are revealed in the interview. Topics such as violence and the gender constructs are mentioned. Although professional wrestling is more of a spectacle, it does take strength and skill. Wrestlers do get hurt and the moves are real. As for the rivalries presented these are nothing more than storylines made for audiences and their entertainment. Women are entering professional wrestling in larger numbers and now there are more platforms.

       Francesca Zappitelli explains there is no single avenue to get into the world of professional wrestling. It is a matter of simply doing research and remaining focused on goals.

It never hurts to have an inspiration. Zappitelli reveals that her main inspiration was Rachel Mclish the first Ms. Olympia. She did compete in one bodybuilding show at age 18. Francesca said she loved the discipline and being in shape. However, Frankie then claims she wanted more. Specifically she wanted to be more of a performer and to test her physical limits. To Francesca simply posing on stage would seem dull and uninspiring. The acting and performance element is what caught her attention. This was her childhood dream. The irony is that female bodybuilders actually do wrestle. Session wrestling has been a part of the sport probably for as long as it has existed. Francesca did mixed wrestling videos under the name Frankie, wrestling both men and women. With the internet sites a have appeared to cater to this interest. She does not mention this in the interview, but is more or less an open secret that there are men who like to wrestle strong women. Once thought to be in the realm of fetish, now mixed wrestling clubs have emerge were men and women wrestle and test their skills. Mixed wrestling existed before the rise of session wrestling. Now it seems many women in bodybuilding are offering them to finance their sport. It is not just women in the bodybuilding class,but in fitness, bikini, figure, and physique . There was a point in which this would have been unthinkable.

Women with such strength and bodies have radically changed what people associate women with. Mr. Abraham realized that in reality this world of female muscle is a $5 billion dollar industry. There is a growing demand for the physically strong woman, but the market and distribution is disjointed. It comes out in pockets never weaved together. The strong woman is finding mainstream success in professional wrestling, however women struggle in the bodybuilding world due to it being mostly subcultural. If these two mainstream and subcultural venues were to ally it would be a positive event for women. At one time it seemed like that was happening. Ann Marie Cooks and Christy Wolf were bodybuilders who entered the world of wrestling.

Their tenures were not long, but they did provide fans of the WCW with much entertainment.  Chyna during the 1990s to early 2000s  was one of the most popular wrestlers. Chyna was also a bodybuilder before becoming a wrestler. There is a connection between wrestling and fitness, yet the two worlds seem separate. Women in the past had few opportunities to wrestle. Wrestling was seen as a male only activity and women were not even allowed to wrestle along side men in the same venue. There was a cultural shift that came with Title IX and the feminist movement. Young girls started playing more sports than ever before and society they had more opportunities in employment, education, and having an independent life. Women were no longer stopped from activities that were thought to be men’s domain. The entry into sports created a new type of woman. It was a woman that projected physical skill and strength thought to be a biological impossibility. Dated cultural beliefs and body image held some women back, but other embraced this new paradigm and pushed their bodies further. Women were should developed muscle in various sports,but the highest level of development came from female bodybuilding . Their muscles were defined and larger than anyone had seen before. Wrestlers like the Fabulous Moolah had to break barriers to get to wrestle while women of today have it much easier. Mary Ellison had to challenge the law so that women could wrestle in Madison Square Garden along side men. Women can now wrestle and display powerful physiques.

While there has been progress this project is continuing. There has to be progress in terms of other areas of society, but sometimes it helps when one area is taken care of. Relative to the sports world the progress of women seems immense in such a short period of time. This movement seems to be a small one, but growing. There is a push in fitness among women who are engaged in a women’s physical culture movement.

        The progress Zappitelli mentions is that women are embracing the new physical culture movement and it is not just in America. Japan like America has a tradition of wrestling that women are no strangers to. They fight and do acrobatics as well as perform in a similar manner in the US. The Japanese, like Americans enjoy the spectacle and antics of the athletes. Traditional wrestling also has a long  history in other parts of the world. Senegal has a tradition of laamb ( a term for wrestling culture ). Women are now becoming active wrestlers, despite conservative objections.

The new women’s physical culture movement has clearly spread around the world. women now are competing in higher numbers at the Olympics. The year 2016 saw more women competing in various categories around the world. There are countries that still need to make progress. Saudi Arabia for example is still attempting to increase its number of  female athletes. There has been a paradigm shift in many regards. The first one is that there is no contradiction between femininity and muscle. Traditionally femininity was define as soft and delicate in body, while being modest in behavior. Women are not only projecting physical strength they are showing it proudly. A new sense of confidence. Women are not afraid to show they can be strong or be stronger than a man. The cultural shift is that there are people who are embracing this either moderately or enthusiastically. The fans of female bodybuilding were the first to understand the beauty of it and mainstream society is merely catching up. Women are lifting weights seeking to tone, which really means building muscle. Every woman is not attempting to reach a level of an athlete, but the gym is no longer a male only space. Television and the internet make the physically strong woman more visible.

The physically fit female has appeared in various forms. it depends on how far women want to take it and what their goals are. Francesca states their needs to be more change and their has to be more done. While their is some level on acceptance, there will always be backlash to change. The female physical culture movement has also stretched out to different age groups. Senior citizens are getting involved in exercise and girls are involved in sports like their brothers. Although there has yet to be major leagues for women in baseball or tackle football they are playing these sports. There are women in the US who have organized their own tackle football leagues without NFL assistance. Women are now experiencing the joys of strength and fitness, which men have enjoyed much longer. Society has changed because it was demanded. There have of course been muscular women prior to modern professional sports. The difference is that women in human history have never reached this level of physical prowess or power before. It is uncertain what the future holds, but the evolution is not complete.

       The interview goes into the subject of sexual harassment and domestic abuse. Women who go into male dominated fields often face sexual harassment and wrestling is no exception.  Such behavior is unacceptable and must be punished. However, there is a problem with the new hash tag movement #me too . Women must realize such sexual misconduct should be reported immediately. Waiting a week and longer to do so allows for culprits to escape changes and punishment. This only makes it more difficult to capture such people. Another problem is there is a tendency to label all men as potential rapists. The strange and somewhat offensive slogan of “teach men not to rape”  is another third wave feminist campaign that demonizes all men. Boys are not taught by their fathers to rape women. There are sexist convictions that may be transferred from environment and culture. To say that rape happens because boys are taught it from a young age, ignores the complexities of the problem. Crimes such as rape happen due to some men wanting to assert power and dominance over women. These criminals believe women are easy targets. They view women as sex objects and victims. Their is a tendency to blame entertainment and media for such behavior, but this does not explain such criminal acts occurring before the rise of such media.  This is how the rape culture theory falls apart. Simply telling such aggressive individuals not to attack someone is as futile as telling a racist to accept people as equals. The solution requires women to be proactive and good men to be allies. Women must learn self defense and understand that not every man they meet is going to be a good one. Women tend to not have such a great judgement of character in regards to some men. They could end up in abusive relationships  with men they thought were decent.

 Women should learn to protect themselves, rather than be dependent on men for protection.  The idea that women are too weak to defend themselves is harmful especially in a world becoming more violent. This also goes back to cases of domestic violence. Francesca and Mr. Abraham discuss what they see as a trend in which it seems that it is okay to hit women. This really is not a trend or a growing phenomenon. A viral video of a bus driver hitting a female passenger sparked controversy over male and female assault. The following year football player Ray Rice was condemned for hitting his soon to be wife. Acts of violence or domestic abuse are despicable, however there is very little reaction when women engage in domestic abuse and assault. These cases or instances may be are compared to male on female violence, but there is little chance of women getting prosecuted for such actions. Male domestic abuse victims hardly receive any attention and many refuse to believe they exist. At times it seen as something comic. That is why the calls that women want equality seem empty. If this were true both men and women would be punished equally for acts of violence. This is an instance in which the weaker sex stereotype distorts people’s reasoning, because their is a belief that women are just not physically capable of violence. While it is true that on average women are not as strong as men, there are women who are very powerful.

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Dani Reardon attacked her boyfriend : female bodybuilder attacks boyfriend she did this when drunk and yet her reputation was not damaged. If a man did this it would be a whole different story.

     A strong muscular woman could hurt many men if she tried. Men should not hit women, but that does not give women a license to hit men without expecting retaliation. There are women who do hit men for whatever reason, believing that men will not react or that they can handle a strike form the one they hit. When a woman is the initiator of violence third wave feminists are silent, but when a man is the assailant there is censure. The rhetoric of equality and women can do anything is drowned out by how evil men are. They do not want equality,but special treatment. Relevant to violence women are not to be made responsible for their actions in particular situations. This notion is ludicrous. If women want to be equals they should realize that starting a physical altercation with a man would result in a negative repercussion. These altercations are the result of the strong woman image and power feminism. These developments are not harmful in themselves, but give the average woman an overestimation of their physical capabilities. Men have denser bones and more muscle mass giving them more strength. Women should not slap or start fights with men. Men who respond are called ungentlemanly or brutes. Women are not condemned for being assailants. Mr.Abraham says in the interview that “society went off the rails” and that the gentlemen is dying out. The only reason the gentlemen is declining in society is that women do not respect or like such men.

 If this strong woman were to assault this man it probably would not provoke a response . 

If this man assaulted this woman he would be arrested doubtless of the situation or  circumstance. 

Women in American society  value status over ethical character in men. This explains why women will tolerate abuse from more powerful men. Donald Trump and Harvey Wienstein  were able to do harass women mainly because they allowed it and accepted due to the fact they are men of prominence.  Most of their advances were unwanted, but women did not fight back because they were more impressed with who they were. There is no rational or legitimate reason for any of those men to have relationships with women or to even be in contact with any. Their actions prove they are dangerous. A kind gentlemen is normally ignored or rejected by women. The lugubrious state of affairs show that women are still being raised to be submissive. Behaviors such as being agreeable all the time or tolerating unacceptable behavior is what women are taught as girls. This will not help them later in life. Women who do challenge mistreatment are either labelled a “difficult woman” or a complainer. Women are going to have to change their behavior and understand they are their own advocates. A knight in shining armor is not coming to your rescue. Chivalry is a dated concept and must be discarded for the reason it perpetuates this horrid cycle of domination. Chivalry is not about just “holding doors open for women” it was about maintaining control in a gender role order. Women were thought to be too weak and helpless to be independent and required male protection. Women did have to an extent a level of comfort, but lacked freedom in terms of education, personal finance, and their own destiny. However, there was the relative  social safety net of the male breadwinner that provided resources they could not get access to . Now that women have a level of independence and can show they can take care of themselves, there really is no need for chivalry. Domestic abuse, sexual harassment and  violence against women is nothing new; it is just that the public has become more aware of the extent of the problem. Their is a violence culture in the US that is responsible for this and it has nothing to do with the decline of chivalry. Gun culture, militarism, and aggressive law enforcement are attributes of violence culture. The US was founded on violence culture with the extermination of the Native Americans and the enslavement of the African peoples. The US is plagued with these problems and it even comes out in sports. The more violent the sport the more the American public likes it. Wrestling. MMA, and football have a huge fandom. The reason could be for the viewer such acts of violence displayed to an extent satisfies or relieves the need to express frustration. If women want equality they need to understand that means their will be not special privileges leftover from the era of chivalry. If this movement to challenge sexual harassment and assault  wants to be serious it needs to target areas in which the problem is much worse. The US military and prison system have a sex crimes problem far greater than the one in the entertainment industry. That must be addressed to the same extent, if not this #me too is nothing more than a media circus distraction, not a genuine movement for change.

      Francesca does have a valid position that their is a level of rage at women advancing in any field. This seems more vocal in sports in fitness. There are men with backward views who feel women are invading male spaces for the sake of dethroning them. The reasoning is that women have advance so far, at least there is one element we have left : sports and physical strength. For a moment that was true, but that is not the case anymore. The reactions range from disrespect of women to condemnation. While it is true that their is a rage present in a portion of men in the sports world with women’s presence, there are also male supporters. They are also ostracized for their support and even viewed unfavorably by the athletes themselves. There are men who love female muscle and athleticism so much they are willing to pay to experience it up close. Schmoes as they are called in the subculture fitness world a regularly disparaged, even though their financial support is critical.

Women in male dominated fields are going to have to work harder to overcome certain prejudices that men have. There is always the question of women’s competence. They are scrutinized more and this is the reason women must be mindful to be treated equally with special accommodation. Doing so would only create resentment among male colleagues.  If women want to be seen as equal wrestlers they must take hits, be entertaining, and have the love of the industry. Then they will be seen just as wrestlers. Chyna did this to great effect during her career at the WWE.

The women who went in professional wrestling were sometimes the only females in their wrestling training camp. There is a level of intimidation and pressure being the only minority in a group. There has been more women and that has improved the situation for them as a group. The feelings of loneliness can be difficult to bear without any support. Normally it is women wrestling women in matches, however intergender matches do occur sometimes. If women choose in wrestle men they have to accept they are going to take hits ( and men vice versa). Seeing as the matches are determined by the writers and the scripts they produce, there would be no issue. This more about entertainment rather tan pure physical contest. Therefore, strength differences would not effect anything. It is great women are advancing, however this does not mean  men should be disparaged. Phrases such as “the future is female” or the power feminist rhetoric preach a desire for matriarchy. The goal should be a happy future together. Empowerment does not mean getting revenge on men or viewing them as a monolithic enemy. Secondly, feminists should follow their own rhetoric. They preach sisterhood, yet white feminists ignore or hold racial prejudice toward women of color. If women in sports were to ban together they could counter the traditionalist backlash. These men can be angry if they want to and this will not deter fans and the talented women.

         Women athletes and specifically wrestlers are gaining more internet exposure and traffic yet are getting less of the revenue. This is a representation of how older gatekeepers are controlling content  even when consumer taste are  evolving. There is a growing number of men and women who want to see this rise of modern sports woman. The internet seems to be more ahead compared to television with new websites and blogs exposing people to this rise in women’s sports entertainment. Francesca Zappitelli’s film will be available on Amazon Prime and hopefully may have a video release. The physically strong woman is becoming more prevalent in society and popular culture. What started with women doing strong woman acts   in the 19th to early 20th century evolved into bodybuilding for women. The fitness culture then spread and entered the mainstream. Female athletes to average women began training with weights and embracing modern physical culture. Wrestling thought as man’s sport saw women enter in both the Olympics and professional sports entertainment. Zappitelli’s  A Ballerina I Am Not is a historical documentation  of how women came to wrestling and how they are changing it.

Francesca Zappitelli Wrestler, Actor, and Filmmaker Interview On Her Movie Ballerina I Am Not

Mina Mitsuoka

Mina Mitsuoka was a former bodybuilder active in the early 2000 to mid-2000s. There are some athletes who appear just as quickly as they leave. Although her competitive career was short, she built an impressive physique. Born in Torrance, California in 1985 she was not a stranger to sport. During elementary school she was involved in gymnastics and played volleyball in high school. She was also a skilled pole vaulter. Mina was a very active student involved in various clubs and extracurricular activities. She even loved taking voice lessons. An unfortunate turn of events actually lead her to bodybuilding. When she had a skate boarding accident, it resulted in her ankle being sprained and the tearing of the ligaments. She went to the gym to help with recovery. Mina then noticed that she was developing significant muscle. To her shock she said “one day I looked in the mirror flexed my bicep  and saw changes.” Mina said that although athletic most of her life she had been thin. She revealed that “she never thought her body could change like that.” When she was a student at the University of California that was when she got serious about her bodybuilding endeavors.

When Mina was in Los Angeles, she went to her classes and work  out as a student. She also served as a personal trainer at the UCLA recreation department. When she returned home, she was encouraged to compete by trainers at her local gym. Her first show was the Northern Gold’s Classic in 2004. Starting at 120 lbs she placed third in the teen division. When she graduated from her university in 2007 she gained  up to 155 lbs of muscle. This was an incredible jump from 2003, only being 117 lbs before serious training. Her role models in terms of physique were Britt Miller and Cindy Phillips. Her physique almost had that type of quality to it. Mina has stated “that training can be fun, but cardio can be fun, diet is the hardest part.” To build such a body Mina had to eat oatmeal, chicken, and whey protein six times a day, while training five times a day. Mina would only train one body part per day. What she loved about the sport is that “it is a healthy hobby that takes a lot of discipline and dedication. ” From 2004 to 2010 she would appear in some contests sporadically. She was a dedicated athlete, but never become one of the major stars. Female bodybuilding fans still remember her as one of the new generation of fresh faces. Besides looking strong is actually had impressive lifts.

Her best bench press is 165 lbs. Her bicep curls were 40 lbs and bent over rows at 225 lbs . She could do dumbell rows with 120 lbs. Mina described her back as her best feature on her physique. Mina Mitsuoka revealed that during her competitive years her friends and family would pressure her to be thin to fit a more conventional ideal of beauty. Although there was limited support for her pursuit, it did not bother her to be different. Society has to understand that there are many forms of beauty. Mina loves  being different and unique.That explains why she loves surfing and skateboarding. These activities are still mostly male dominated, however women like Mina are getting involved. The year 2007 saw Mina compete in the Northern Classic. She also decided to pursue a career in ophthalmology. The year 2010 she competed in the INBA Team Nevada Contest in the figure division.

Mina also appeared in videos for Sports-women project.com. There she demonstrated her wrestling skills and strength. After graduating medical school, she went into a practice. Mina has iterated “that she will always love bodybuilding.” Although it seems she has retired from sports, Mina now is an Ophthalmologist working at Bel-Red Vision.  Her academic credentials are also as impressive as her athletic feats. As an undergraduate she majored in biology and then got her doctorate in ophthalmology  Pacific University College of ophthalmology.

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Some of Mina’s art : Mina’s Art  

After getting married and starting her professional career in ophthalmology , she now goes by the name Mina Fordcye . Mina spends time between patients and new hobbies. Mina’s new passion includes drawing and painting. Being a lover of pets her painting subjects include dogs.  Dr. Fordcye  is a member of American Optometric Association  and the Optometric Physicians of Washington. Her internships involved her working in the San Diego Naval Hospital and Pacific Cataract and Laser Institute.  Currently based in Bellevue, Mina provides medical service to the community.  Now being part the medical field, she helps people maintain healthy eyes. Fans will miss her very much on stage.One does not need an ophthalmology degree to see she was a marvel on the bodybuilding stage.

Mina Mitsuoka

Battle of the Sexes: Men Work out More Than Women

Battle of the Sexes: Men Work Out More Than Women

This article from Shape magazine reveals a health disparity between the sexes. According to a study from Preventive Medicine  the average man gets more physical activity than the average woman. To people familiar with gym culture, fitness, or sports in general this is no surprise. However, it does indicate that women would disproportionately suffer negative health consequences due to inactivity. Osteoporosis, heart disease, obesity, and even neurodegenerative diseases are risk factors for inactivity. Oregon State University too a sample of 1,000 men and women According to the data which was not self reported women only got 18 minutes of moderate to intense exercise, while men went to 30 minutes in a session. The data was collected from accelerometers recording total physical activity. It has been recommended that people should get at bare minimum 30 minutes of exercise a day. The problem is women are not getting enough which puts them at higher risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and even depression. One in three women as suffer from metabolic syndrome. What are the possible reasons for this disparity? This question can be answered through sociological and biological factors.

        The text cites “some evidence indicates that women, compared to men, have less confidence in their ability to overcome exercise related barriers.” At first a reader would be perplexed by what that means. To elucidate their is a prejudice and sexism against women who show physical strength, skill,  and power. Simultaneously, women who do seek to improve physical fitness do have a lack of confidence at the beginning of their program. The weaker sex stereotype is still in the consciousness of many and some women are more vulnerable to it. This makes them believe their are certain activities they cannot do, simply because their biology does not allow it. The female body has been regarded as biologically and physically inferior, even though exercise physiology has discredited this notion. The gym and physical activity has been for a longtime thought to be solely a male domain. Gradually, with more women in sports this dated idea has diminished. Yet, sexist stereotypes and traditional gender roles still remain, even in an atmosphere of change. The idea that women can excel at something physical or athletic is considered unladylike. When a strong man shows his skill he is congratulated; when a woman does this she is condemned.

Unfortunately society judges women who are physically strong more harshly than men.  

Muscle and physical fitness are seen as something male only. This effects the way women view exercise throughout their lives. Women may internalize such negative attitudes. While it has been known that weightlifting has more benefits, women may focus on cardio for fear of “getting too big.” With little encouragement and a negative atmosphere women may just stop an exercise regimen all together. There is a segment of  the fitness industry that promotes weight loss for aesthetic purposes rather than health. The impact of body image is powerful, especially is one body type is constantly promoted in various media. If one is surrounded my one image or idea it can distort a person’s thinking. Too many women are attempting to change their bodies to an unattainable or unrealistic body ideal. Extreme cases lead to anorexia or bulimia, which occurs more in women. This is no accident and it is understandable why such a psychological disorder is prevalent. Women who have different body types are either disparaged or ostracized. Women who look different or want to alter their bodies are made into outcasts. If body image pressure is hard on the average woman it is even more intense on the female athlete. While there are sociological barriers, there are some that are biological. Male and female bodies are different, which means there will be a number of outcomes in fitness regimens. Women may have to adjust training to suit their endocrine and musculoskeletal attributes depending on what their goal is. Women on average have less muscular strength and aerobic capacity compared to the average man. Looser joints mean women could be more susceptible to injuries such as ACL tears. This does not mean women cannot handle exercise, it means it should be tailored to prevent injuries and enhance results. Some assume that women cannot gain strength or enhance fitness levels due to sex differences in physiology. Being female does not limit potential,because women can increase their strength and cardiovascular status.

 This will take longer for women to achieve. There are women who get discouraged when results do not happen immediately and quit. Like weight loss regimens, if one is not consistent it will fail. There is a constant inferiority complex that some women might feel that if it is anything physical or sports related, they will fail at. This psychological barrier has to be overcome. Men do not have this problem, because they are not taught to view their bodies as weak. There are differences, but this does not indicate inferiority. Body composition, lung as well as heart size, skeletal and muscle mass just indicate that men have higher physical fitness levels. While women have shown they are capable, that does not mean they have acceptance in the gym space. Traditionally, women were excluded from these areas.

There were only some exercises that were considered acceptable for women. Most were directed at making sure childbirth could be easier. The professional  medical community in the 19th century was not concerned about women’s health, just as long as women could produce children. They though rigorous exercise was bad for the female body and could harm her reproductive capacities. Such falsehoods were promoted by eugenicists and physical educators with the purpose of discouraging women from using their bodies. Although women had been participants in sports since ancient civilization, there has been a constant theme of women being discouraged from the use of their body.  The exercise related barriers are present to this day, even starting at an earlier age. Girls are not taught to throw or  learn other physical skills. If the do receive such instruction, it would only be in physical education. Even in that atmosphere the expectations are lowered. The physical standards for boys and girls in terms of the President’s  Council on Physical Fitness Award differ.

benchmarks_presidential_largeIt makes no sense that the standards are different between the ages of  6 to 13. The reason being is the endocrinological changes from puberty have not occurred. Some standards on the chart are the same, but others are not. Men do not start getting their strength spurt until the age 13, when testosterone production increases. This effects both the muscular and skeletal system giving men more strength. Early on girls seem to be viewed as not capable of playing sports or physical skill. This explains why “you throw like a girl” is used as an insult. There is a subtle sexism that remains in physical education and  is much ore vicious misogyny in sports. Childhood experiences mold what type of person one will be as an adult. If girls at at young age are told they are not capable, they will not attempt try. For both boys and girls their experiences in physical education will influence how they feel about exercise and physical activity. If a PE teacher makes the class unpleasant or dull students will take that negative attitude into adulthood.

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Exercise becomes associated with a chore or a pointless task, when it is essential to your health. The same can be said of children in youth sports. If soccer moms and football dads are too aggressive and pressure their children too much. This will only turn  them away from such activities as adults. They should get from such activities how to work in groups and discover the joy of play.  These exercise related barriers are influenced by environment and culture. Biology may also have influence as well. Boys seem to have more energy and it is harder for them to sit still. Girls seem more sedentary. It is unclear how much is this is cultural or biological. This may explain why to an extent more men gravitate to sports or physical activity. It has been suspected that their is a link between competitiveness and higher testosterone levels. These difference in behavior could be evidence of a human evolutionary past. Men’s desire for physical activity could have been essential in early hunter gatherer societies. Biology is important, but environment has just as great an impact.

       Environment and duties were cited as another reason women had difficulty getting involved in exercise. Childcare was cited as the main duty that women had to do, which effected their exercise pattern. The world has advanced in some ways, but in others it has not. Women are still expected to do all of the child rearing, with minimal help. Life is harder for single mothers who face both stigma and lack of sympathy. There is another problem. Everyone may not have money to afford a gym membership or have access to particular facilities. It should be remembered that conditions vary around the world, even with rapid technological advancement. Women in other nations not only have to deal with childcare, but also financially supporting the family. This is the case in lesser developed nations in which the economy is agriculturally based.Women are to an extent privileged in the West. Daycare services may not be present in certain regions of particular countries.

While there are challenges for the global south nations, the first world nations have another problem. Modern society has caused a new set of health issues. Being overweight  or obese has become more prevalent, seeing as technology has eliminated many manual labor jobs. A majority of occupations or professions do not require much physical activity at all. There are few remaining ones, yet these will gradually disappear when artificial intelligence and robotic automation become more advanced. Combine with a more competitive, fast paced, and regimented workplace severe stress and depression are ubiquitous. The slow paced labor of agricultural and artisan society was eliminated by the industrial revolution. This changed the health of populations , which can be seen today. People are living longer, but the price is that the chances of getting a chronic disease have increased. Abundance is not always a positive development. The surplus in food has made it so that eating out of boredom is a common activity. Unhealthy habits become stress reducers in a society that is too uptight. There are still large numbers of people who smoke and consume alcohol to excess, even when they know the health risks. Rather than just making time for exercise, mentality has to change. Dedication and discipline must be maintained to change habits. If you environment does not encourage will power or self control then  it is more difficult. Time should not be the enemy; we make to for matters that are important to us. This can also be circumvent if a busy schedule gets in a person’s way. Using the stairs or standing can be enough to burn some calories. Short periods of exercise is better than nothing. Doing push ups or sit ups before bed could be useful.

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Environment can effect health and exercise habits in a population. Increasing exercise can help improve health, but these gains could be lost if pollution and climate change effect the population.  The daily routine of most people seems to involve too much sitting. A sedentary lifestyle causes numerous health issues. For women who on average live longer it can harm the quality of life.

         As we age the body becomes more vulnerable to disease. There can be prevention through exercise and diet. Women have lower bone density. As people age ossification slows and cannot rapidly build bone mass as it used to. Women would be at higher risk for osteoporosis if they are not doing some form of load bearing exercise. Building bone mass is critical to skeletal health. Doing so allows people to be more mobile in old age.  weight training exercise can also maintain muscular strength. Women would lose more considering they have less in terms of body composition. This can also be reversed through physical activity. Maintaining a functioning circulatory system also is essential to health. Heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure do not only harm the circulatory system, but the entire body. Blocked arteries can effect organs, which need blood.

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It has been hypothesized that being active protects the brain from neurodegenerative disease. Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease  have been increasing in elderly populations. Their causes are not entirely known or understood, but symptoms such as death of neurons and the loss of memory are common. This causes cerebral atrophy and the widening of the brain  ventricles. There is a possible connection that a compromised circulatory system damage could contribute to neurodegenerative  disease.  There have yet to be precise studies, so it remains speculative. Having some physical activity may actually be good for your nervous system than previous thought. Not only that learning and keeping the mind active is just as pivotal. Excess body fat can put strain on the skeleton and possibly a risk for certain cancers. Joints are also put under intense strain from excess weight. Women are more at risk from gaining excess weight due to how food is metabolized in their bodies and the function of estrogen. Estrogen produces higher levels of fat, which means it is more difficult for women to lose weight. Even the slimmest or most muscular woman has a higher fat percentage compared to a man of a similar somatotype.

Body Scan
Body scans of an overweight person and a person of normal weight show how excess weight can negatively effect health. 

Other than the personal risk to  individuals, there is the question remains of healthcare systems. If the population of a nation lives longer and does not have an adequate healthcare system, there will be a crisis. A huge population of sick people means it will be a public health crisis. Another troubling problem is that children are also having weight related health issues as well. Obesity continues to rise in the US and UK. This could be reversed not only with a change in diet and the reduced use of high fructose corn syrup, but simple exercise. It does not have to be intense. Simple walks or jogs could  be effective. High fat and sugar diets are creating health problems in youth as well as adults. Women getting less exercise is a urgent health issue. Women’s health commonly focuses on pregnancy, diseases or conditions of the reproductive system, and differences in how the female body reacts in certain health and medical conditions. There should be more study and expansion to include women’s physical activity. The reason is that the health risk of physical  inactivity  would be too high.

Battle of the Sexes: Men Work out More Than Women

The Camelita Jeter Story

Carmelita Jeter  is an three time Olympic gold medalist, who holds records in sprinting. She was born in 1979 a resident of California. Her talent was revealed early in her life. Prior to excelling in sprinting events, she was a skilled basketball player. During high school she began to be a track athlete. From there, her skills and talents only grew. Jeter is a graduate of California State University earning her degree in physical education. She remains the school’s most decorated track and field athlete to date. Her professional debut was in 2007 in the World Championships. This competition brought her a great victory in which she won her first medal in the 100m. That same year she won a silver medal in the USA Track and Field Indoor Championships. The year 2008 was a turning point in which she changed her coach and running technique. Jeter stands at 5-4 and a weight of 135 lbs. Her athletic credentials are immense and impressive. Her runs times include 10.64 (100m), 22.20 ( 200m), 10.92 ( 2008 London Grand Pix), and 10.83  (2009 World Championships). Faster than the Flash or Sonic the Hedgehog, she has become the ultimate sprinter. Besides her athletic endeavors she also is involved in philanthropy. She continues to be involved in fund raising for breast cancer research. She was in 2014 the official ambassador for Susan G. koleman ‘s California Circle of Promise Initiative. This program was designed to raise awareness about breast cancer in the African American community. Track and field fans however are more familiar with athletic feats.

      The 2012 Olympics was an event in which Jeter amused audiences. She was the pillar of the 4X100 relay. Carmelita Jeter became the first athlete to win medals in both the 200m and 100m race  at the Olympic Games. These spectacular feats come as no surprise. During the mid-2000s she had been gradually improving. Jeter has successes in the World Championships of 2009 with a record time 10.67. That made her the third fastest woman in history. The 2010 saw Jeter win two gold medals and silver in the World Championships. At this point was clear that her performance could only increase.

That was what made her performance so special. Jamaica produces great runners, but their dominance has been threatened by US talent. Her performance earned her a Jesse Owens Award one of the most prestigious track and field accolades. Jeter has revealed many thoughts and feelings about her career, sports, and live through various interviews. Her views on the student athlete are different from the common perspective. She once said “enjoy college and high school because you don’t get those years back.” Jeter delineates further ” you have plenty of time to become professional.” Too often the student athlete is regimented so they miss out on the simple joys of youth. Carmelita Jeter felt she made a sacrifice at the expense of the care free times of being a young adult. She also emphasized that education is the main goal of being at a university, even if  you are an athlete. If an athletic career does not work out she explained, you need to have a back up plan. Jeter believes that it is best to balance your life, athletic activity, and school work. Jeter revealed that getting to the 2012 Olympics was not a simple task. She admitted “that nobody thought I could make it at my age.” This was around the time she lost her beloved aunt Brenda Washington to breast cancer. This caused her much distress. She was able in her own words turn negative events into positives.

Normally, athletes have a person that inspired them in their career. Jeter said it was her aunt who was her inspiration. Her aunt was not an athlete, but a person that was close and encouraging in her life. The women in her family were her role models. Jeter described her aunt as ” whitley of the family ” ( from the TV show A Different World ). Carmelita Jeter revealed that “the women I look up to are every day women.” However, she does have favorite athletes she likes to see compete. She is a fan of Serena Williams, and Candace Parker. Being a former basketball player she love watching the WNBA. Jeter has much respect for Becky Hammon assistant coach of the Spurs. She is not just an athlete, but also a sports fan. This should be no shock. Carmelita Jeter recalling her childhood stated ” I grew up in a sports household.” She would play basketball with her dad and brother on the weekends. Her beginnings were humble as she revealed ” I didn’t come from a family with a whole lot of money so if we knew we weren’t going to be super smart in the class room we had to be athletic and get scholarships.” Track and field gave Jeter more of a competitive drive and a desire to push herself further. At the 2013 World Championships in Moscow she was able to compete with a torn quadricep. She won a bronze medal in that 100m race.

          Carmelita Jeter during her athletic career followed a particular training and diet regimen to enhance performance. When preparing for competition her diet consists of vegetables and some baked goods. Eating three meals a day with two snacks in between, rest was also important. Jeter claimed that her focus was intense starting her day early and being in bed by 9:00 pm.

London Olympics Athletics WomenJeter said staying hydrated is also critical to her training. Also Carmelita Jeter incorporates weight training into her fitness program. Her schedule goes as follows : in the weight room from 6:30 to 7:45, trains in UCLA, and has cryotherapy. Jeter does this to have her muscles relax from exercise and completes this six hour a day training by 12:30. Jeter also likes doing pilates saying ” that’s why my abs look the way they do.” This training regime produced an impressively powerful body. As she said “when I hopped on the scene I was very fast and very muscular.” She also believed in her own assessment “that it turned people off.” She did not let dated and old fashioned beliefs deter her. To Jeter there is nothing wrong with women being strong. The track and field athlete has embraced the movement of physically strong women saying “I love that women want to strong not just mentally, but physically.” Carmelita Jeter  also clarifies ” it is definitely  inspiring to see the movement to be strong is relating to women and is trickling down to young girls.” Her philosophy is “that is okay to be muscular and it is okay to be buff.” She has started from humble roots to Olympic champion. She certainly will inspire many young women athletes.

        Currently Jeter was set to compete in the 2016 Rio Olympics. Unfortunately, injury pulled her out of the trials. It was clear that if she was not sustain the injury to her quadricep, she would have been excellent. Carmelita Jeter at age 37 is still in great shape. Normally athletes reach there physical fitness peak around this time frame. Jeter has made no indications about whether she will continue to compete or attempt to appear in the 2020 Olympics. The year 2017 she did not run at all instead focusing on mentoring young athletes. It seems that quadriceps issues continue to be a hindrance to her competitive streak. It is too soon to say that she is retiring or done with the sport. If 2016 was the last year fans see her actively compete, she went out with an impressive accomplishments.

The Camelita Jeter Story