Battle of the Sexes: Men Work out More Than Women

Battle of the Sexes: Men Work Out More Than Women

This article from Shape magazine reveals a health disparity between the sexes. According to a study from Preventive Medicine  the average man gets more physical activity than the average woman. To people familiar with gym culture, fitness, or sports in general this is no surprise. However, it does indicate that women would disproportionately suffer negative health consequences due to inactivity. Osteoporosis, heart disease, obesity, and even neurodegenerative diseases are risk factors for inactivity. Oregon State University too a sample of 1,000 men and women According to the data which was not self reported women only got 18 minutes of moderate to intense exercise, while men went to 30 minutes in a session. The data was collected from accelerometers recording total physical activity. It has been recommended that people should get at bare minimum 30 minutes of exercise a day. The problem is women are not getting enough which puts them at higher risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and even depression. One in three women as suffer from metabolic syndrome. What are the possible reasons for this disparity? This question can be answered through sociological and biological factors.

        The text cites “some evidence indicates that women, compared to men, have less confidence in their ability to overcome exercise related barriers.” At first a reader would be perplexed by what that means. To elucidate their is a prejudice and sexism against women who show physical strength, skill,  and power. Simultaneously, women who do seek to improve physical fitness do have a lack of confidence at the beginning of their program. The weaker sex stereotype is still in the consciousness of many and some women are more vulnerable to it. This makes them believe their are certain activities they cannot do, simply because their biology does not allow it. The female body has been regarded as biologically and physically inferior, even though exercise physiology has discredited this notion. The gym and physical activity has been for a longtime thought to be solely a male domain. Gradually, with more women in sports this dated idea has diminished. Yet, sexist stereotypes and traditional gender roles still remain, even in an atmosphere of change. The idea that women can excel at something physical or athletic is considered unladylike. When a strong man shows his skill he is congratulated; when a woman does this she is condemned.

Unfortunately society judges women who are physically strong more harshly than men.  

Muscle and physical fitness are seen as something male only. This effects the way women view exercise throughout their lives. Women may internalize such negative attitudes. While it has been known that weightlifting has more benefits, women may focus on cardio for fear of “getting too big.” With little encouragement and a negative atmosphere women may just stop an exercise regimen all together. There is a segment of  the fitness industry that promotes weight loss for aesthetic purposes rather than health. The impact of body image is powerful, especially is one body type is constantly promoted in various media. If one is surrounded my one image or idea it can distort a person’s thinking. Too many women are attempting to change their bodies to an unattainable or unrealistic body ideal. Extreme cases lead to anorexia or bulimia, which occurs more in women. This is no accident and it is understandable why such a psychological disorder is prevalent. Women who have different body types are either disparaged or ostracized. Women who look different or want to alter their bodies are made into outcasts. If body image pressure is hard on the average woman it is even more intense on the female athlete. While there are sociological barriers, there are some that are biological. Male and female bodies are different, which means there will be a number of outcomes in fitness regimens. Women may have to adjust training to suit their endocrine and musculoskeletal attributes depending on what their goal is. Women on average have less muscular strength and aerobic capacity compared to the average man. Looser joints mean women could be more susceptible to injuries such as ACL tears. This does not mean women cannot handle exercise, it means it should be tailored to prevent injuries and enhance results. Some assume that women cannot gain strength or enhance fitness levels due to sex differences in physiology. Being female does not limit potential,because women can increase their strength and cardiovascular status.

 This will take longer for women to achieve. There are women who get discouraged when results do not happen immediately and quit. Like weight loss regimens, if one is not consistent it will fail. There is a constant inferiority complex that some women might feel that if it is anything physical or sports related, they will fail at. This psychological barrier has to be overcome. Men do not have this problem, because they are not taught to view their bodies as weak. There are differences, but this does not indicate inferiority. Body composition, lung as well as heart size, skeletal and muscle mass just indicate that men have higher physical fitness levels. While women have shown they are capable, that does not mean they have acceptance in the gym space. Traditionally, women were excluded from these areas.

There were only some exercises that were considered acceptable for women. Most were directed at making sure childbirth could be easier. The professional  medical community in the 19th century was not concerned about women’s health, just as long as women could produce children. They though rigorous exercise was bad for the female body and could harm her reproductive capacities. Such falsehoods were promoted by eugenicists and physical educators with the purpose of discouraging women from using their bodies. Although women had been participants in sports since ancient civilization, there has been a constant theme of women being discouraged from the use of their body.  The exercise related barriers are present to this day, even starting at an earlier age. Girls are not taught to throw or  learn other physical skills. If the do receive such instruction, it would only be in physical education. Even in that atmosphere the expectations are lowered. The physical standards for boys and girls in terms of the President’s  Council on Physical Fitness Award differ.

benchmarks_presidential_largeIt makes no sense that the standards are different between the ages of  6 to 13. The reason being is the endocrinological changes from puberty have not occurred. Some standards on the chart are the same, but others are not. Men do not start getting their strength spurt until the age 13, when testosterone production increases. This effects both the muscular and skeletal system giving men more strength. Early on girls seem to be viewed as not capable of playing sports or physical skill. This explains why “you throw like a girl” is used as an insult. There is a subtle sexism that remains in physical education and  is much ore vicious misogyny in sports. Childhood experiences mold what type of person one will be as an adult. If girls at at young age are told they are not capable, they will not attempt try. For both boys and girls their experiences in physical education will influence how they feel about exercise and physical activity. If a PE teacher makes the class unpleasant or dull students will take that negative attitude into adulthood.


Exercise becomes associated with a chore or a pointless task, when it is essential to your health. The same can be said of children in youth sports. If soccer moms and football dads are too aggressive and pressure their children too much. This will only turn  them away from such activities as adults. They should get from such activities how to work in groups and discover the joy of play.  These exercise related barriers are influenced by environment and culture. Biology may also have influence as well. Boys seem to have more energy and it is harder for them to sit still. Girls seem more sedentary. It is unclear how much is this is cultural or biological. This may explain why to an extent more men gravitate to sports or physical activity. It has been suspected that their is a link between competitiveness and higher testosterone levels. These difference in behavior could be evidence of a human evolutionary past. Men’s desire for physical activity could have been essential in early hunter gatherer societies. Biology is important, but environment has just as great an impact.

       Environment and duties were cited as another reason women had difficulty getting involved in exercise. Childcare was cited as the main duty that women had to do, which effected their exercise pattern. The world has advanced in some ways, but in others it has not. Women are still expected to do all of the child rearing, with minimal help. Life is harder for single mothers who face both stigma and lack of sympathy. There is another problem. Everyone may not have money to afford a gym membership or have access to particular facilities. It should be remembered that conditions vary around the world, even with rapid technological advancement. Women in other nations not only have to deal with childcare, but also financially supporting the family. This is the case in lesser developed nations in which the economy is agriculturally based.Women are to an extent privileged in the West. Daycare services may not be present in certain regions of particular countries.

While there are challenges for the global south nations, the first world nations have another problem. Modern society has caused a new set of health issues. Being overweight  or obese has become more prevalent, seeing as technology has eliminated many manual labor jobs. A majority of occupations or professions do not require much physical activity at all. There are few remaining ones, yet these will gradually disappear when artificial intelligence and robotic automation become more advanced. Combine with a more competitive, fast paced, and regimented workplace severe stress and depression are ubiquitous. The slow paced labor of agricultural and artisan society was eliminated by the industrial revolution. This changed the health of populations , which can be seen today. People are living longer, but the price is that the chances of getting a chronic disease have increased. Abundance is not always a positive development. The surplus in food has made it so that eating out of boredom is a common activity. Unhealthy habits become stress reducers in a society that is too uptight. There are still large numbers of people who smoke and consume alcohol to excess, even when they know the health risks. Rather than just making time for exercise, mentality has to change. Dedication and discipline must be maintained to change habits. If you environment does not encourage will power or self control then  it is more difficult. Time should not be the enemy; we make to for matters that are important to us. This can also be circumvent if a busy schedule gets in a person’s way. Using the stairs or standing can be enough to burn some calories. Short periods of exercise is better than nothing. Doing push ups or sit ups before bed could be useful.



Environment can effect health and exercise habits in a population. Increasing exercise can help improve health, but these gains could be lost if pollution and climate change effect the population.  The daily routine of most people seems to involve too much sitting. A sedentary lifestyle causes numerous health issues. For women who on average live longer it can harm the quality of life.

         As we age the body becomes more vulnerable to disease. There can be prevention through exercise and diet. Women have lower bone density. As people age ossification slows and cannot rapidly build bone mass as it used to. Women would be at higher risk for osteoporosis if they are not doing some form of load bearing exercise. Building bone mass is critical to skeletal health. Doing so allows people to be more mobile in old age.  weight training exercise can also maintain muscular strength. Women would lose more considering they have less in terms of body composition. This can also be reversed through physical activity. Maintaining a functioning circulatory system also is essential to health. Heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure do not only harm the circulatory system, but the entire body. Blocked arteries can effect organs, which need blood.



It has been hypothesized that being active protects the brain from neurodegenerative disease. Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease  have been increasing in elderly populations. Their causes are not entirely known or understood, but symptoms such as death of neurons and the loss of memory are common. This causes cerebral atrophy and the widening of the brain  ventricles. There is a possible connection that a compromised circulatory system damage could contribute to neurodegenerative  disease.  There have yet to be precise studies, so it remains speculative. Having some physical activity may actually be good for your nervous system than previous thought. Not only that learning and keeping the mind active is just as pivotal. Excess body fat can put strain on the skeleton and possibly a risk for certain cancers. Joints are also put under intense strain from excess weight. Women are more at risk from gaining excess weight due to how food is metabolized in their bodies and the function of estrogen. Estrogen produces higher levels of fat, which means it is more difficult for women to lose weight. Even the slimmest or most muscular woman has a higher fat percentage compared to a man of a similar somatotype.

Body Scan
Body scans of an overweight person and a person of normal weight show how excess weight can negatively effect health. 

Other than the personal risk to  individuals, there is the question remains of healthcare systems. If the population of a nation lives longer and does not have an adequate healthcare system, there will be a crisis. A huge population of sick people means it will be a public health crisis. Another troubling problem is that children are also having weight related health issues as well. Obesity continues to rise in the US and UK. This could be reversed not only with a change in diet and the reduced use of high fructose corn syrup, but simple exercise. It does not have to be intense. Simple walks or jogs could  be effective. High fat and sugar diets are creating health problems in youth as well as adults. Women getting less exercise is a urgent health issue. Women’s health commonly focuses on pregnancy, diseases or conditions of the reproductive system, and differences in how the female body reacts in certain health and medical conditions. There should be more study and expansion to include women’s physical activity. The reason is that the health risk of physical  inactivity  would be too high.

Battle of the Sexes: Men Work out More Than Women

“In The Future, All Women Will Be Amazons” From The Smithsonian

In The Future Women Will Be Amazons

This article written Matt Novak explores an newspaper released published in 1950. The name of it was “How Experts Think We Will Live in the Year 2000 A.D.”  and it makes predictions based on thoughts from the editors. Futurology and future studies became popular in the 20th century due to rapid technological and sociological change. When the Associated Press ran this piece, two World Wars had happened, cars, airplanes were in use and computers were gradually developing into what they are today. Futurism and futurology more specifically attempts to postulate possible outcomes , perspectives  or futures. It these academic fields are more related to the social sciences. What this branch of study seeks to do is understand why the world changes and the probability of change. To the futurologist there is a pattern in past and present. This method however has its limits. The problem with prediction is that it almost becomes the equivalent to a person reading tarot cards. Some cases these prediction about human society can be completely wrong. There was a time in which humanity was excited about the future. There was an idea that technology, progress,  and the elimination of conflict would create societal utopia. Some believed that by the 21st century humanity would have mastered interstellar travel and cured most diseases. This has not happened. While humankind has reached the moon, there are still the some sociological problems plaguing the world. There has been some advancement in terms of human rights, public health, and the availability of education. War, poverty, and racism threaten human advancement. When discussing the state of women there is a fluctuation. Dorothy Roe one of the editors of the article, described what the typical woman would be like in the year 2000. Her prediction about women entering the world of business and government has occurred. Roe states that the average woman will be six feet tall, wear a size 11 shoe, and have muscles like a truck driver.” It is now the year 2017 and the average woman does not have the muscles of truck driver or is above six feet tall. There are obviously stronger and faster women athletes who fit this description. Her futurist prediction was partly off, yet not entirely wrong. Examining this futurist prediction from a sociological, anatomical, biological, and physiological method could have provided a more precise picture.

      Women have been in some instances in a  subordinate role through out human history. This however was not always the case. Before the rise of long lasting human civilization hunter gatherer societies in some respects were more equal. The rise of agriculture, land ownership, and property created the inequality that is present in modern society. Men had access to more property and land. Simultaneously, women were denied education, equal rights, or full employment. This did not mean women simply accepted oppression. Before feminism, there were female leaders, scientists, and mover’s of history. The tragic element was that historians did not think enough of women to include their narratives. Thankfully, women’s history seeks to reverse this mistake. Historical figures such as Hatshetpsut, Nzinga, Queen Elizabeth I, and Joan of Arc are notable women who had risen to prominence in male dominated societies.

The news piece states the amazon of the future “may even be president.” The way in which that though was expressed made it seem as if a female leader was a new concept. The futurist prediction only examines that world through an American perspective. Other countries have female leaders, but at that time it was far less. Now it has increased across the world. Some female leaders have left their mark on history for good or bad, but have shown they have mastered the art of politics. The United States has not yet elected a female president, despite its rhetoric of supporting women’s rights. Although Hillary Clinton lost, it encouraged more women to run for political office. Women have even been leaders in countries, which do not value them as citizens or protect their rights. Benazir Bhutto and Indira Gandhi  governed nations in which had an ultraconservative view of women’s roles. Benazir  Bhutto was the first female leader of a majority Muslim nation, while Indira Gandhi was the first female Prime Minister of India. The US still lags behind compared with the UK which has had two Prime Ministers to date which included Margaret Thatcher and currently Theresa May. The irony is that their policies are not in alignment with women’s rights or causes. Ellen Sirlef  of Liberia and Tsai Ing Wen of Taiwan represent a new female leader of the 21st century. They vary in political ideology, do not refer to themselves as feminists, and are tactical.

One cannot not say women are not capable politicians. Largely a culture of misogyny has kept women out of politics. There have been biological explanations for why men have domination of society. These theories normally just are designed to justify sexist convictions. History disproves this, because women have been involved in science, politics, warfare, and the building of civilization. The gender gap is still present even when women make progress. The world of business and finance is a place where women have reached a glass ceiling. Discrimination, unequal pay, and sexual harassment are the sociological reasons why women may not advance in certain fields. Even under these unfavorable conditions women are present in occupations that were thought to be male only. Law enforcement, firefighting, the military, construction,  and sports are physically demanding occupations. Due to differences in physiological and fitness capacity women would remain small in number in these occupations. However, despite such obstacles women have become part of these professions. While sociological factors are relevant, biological factors cannot be ignored entirely.

If a society has less technology a majority of jobs would be manual labor based. This could theoretically exclude many women, beside the obvious prejudice. The rise of the industrial revolution saw the replacement of brawn power with machine power. This should have benefited women the most, but cultural mores and gender roles prevented it. Women were regulated to the domestic sphere excluded from public life and participation in it. The working classes had women in menial occupations, with even less independence. Women’s status and roles have fluctuated through out history. There were periods in which they had some freedom and as time passed society degenerated. Ancient Egyptian civilization allowed women to own property and have some legal rights to it. They were not burdened by male guardianship and navigate freely, which Greek historian Herodotus called unnatural. As monotheistic religion emerged, women’s status was then lowered. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam demanded that women have a subordinate role in their religious texts and belief system. Women were regulated to property and not people. The rise of the suffrage movement in the 19th century evolved in the feminist movement of the 20th century. Women then gradually regained their status as free people, while facing  backlash to change. The sudden change in women’s status is part of a consistent pattern in human history. There may come a time in which women create large corporations and companies of their own. Society and civilization is never static it is always evolving.

        The article predicts that the average woman in the year 2000 will have proportions that are perfect though amazonian, because “science will have perfected a  balanced  ration of vitamins, minerals, and proteins that will produce the maximum bodily efficiency and a minimum of fat. ” Dorthy Roe then says “she will compete in all types of sports- probably compete with men athletes in football, baseball, wrestling  and prize fighting.” There is no denying that women in sports and athletics have become very strong, but competing with men on average seems to be inaccurate.

Women now compete in most sports, however there are no organized teams for baseball. Women have teams for softball, but there remains work to be done in some areas. Women do have organized football teams, yet they do not have the coverage comparative to the NFL. The strength sports thought to be out of women’s physiological capabilities, are active in. Mixed martial arts, bodybuilding, weightlifting, track and field are areas in which women are showing their talents. Women’s participation in sport has increased, yet mixed competition has not occurred. The reason is anatomical. There exists an athletic performance gap between the sexes due to anatomical factors. Men on average have broader shoulders and more upper body strength. Generally men grow taller than women. While the muscular and skeletal cells are the same their structure changes athletic outcomes. Denser bones and larger muscle fibers mean males would have more absolute strength. The smaller hearts and lungs of women mean that their aerobic capacity would be lower. The major organ systems that contribute to athletic performance include the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, the nervous system, endocrine system, and the musculoskeletal  system. Movement is not just dependent on muscle, but the impulses of the nervous system. The hormones produced by the endocrine system do influence athletic performance. Testosterone allows for greater muscular hypertrophy. Women with lighter bones and smaller muscle mass in comparison means they are more susceptible to injury the more intense the physical competition. There is a point in which absolute strength levels are equal. Prior to puberty boys and girls do not differ in physical strength. Girls may experience thier growth spurt earlier compared to boys. When gondadotropin releasing hormone is produced by the pituitary gland it then signals the production of lutienizing  and follicle producing hormone. Thus begins the production of sex hormones and growth hormone. Estrogen makes the female body retain more fat. Even the most muscular woman and the thinnest woman still retain a higher fat percentage compared to a man of a similar physical fitness level.

Tendons and ligaments are also contributors to body strength. Women’s tendons may not respond the same way to training, but their looser joints make them more flexible. This means women would dominate gymnastics and figure skating even if their was mixed competition. A wider pelvis and lower aerobic capacity means that women would struggle to keep up with male speeds. Contrary to popular belief women do not have stronger legs than men, but are relative closer in strength in that area. However, despite these differences, women can still acquire physical strength through training. Genetics do play a role giving women of a mesomorphic body type more of an advantage. The average woman has not morphed into an amazon quite yet, but there is a group that could fall into Roe’s description. While nutrition has improved, there is the problem of abundance. Foods high in sugar, fats, and high fructose corn syrup have created a problem with obesity and weight related diseases. Women are particularly effected more by this, considering it is more of a challenge for them to lose weight. The modern age has produce a very sedentary lifestyle, with limited physical activity. As a result heart disease, diabetes, and weight management issues have increased. This has not only happened in the United States, but is spreading across the globe. A low vegetable, fruit, and protein diet can result in poor health. It seems if this is not addressed the average woman and man will look similar to blobs. This can be reversed through diet, exercise, and honest nutrition labeling. Roe’s other prediction seems to have realized the effectiveness of supplements for athletes. Women can benefit as much as men from the use of vitamins and supplements. This has become a lucrative industry and has greatly benefited athletes and the general public. Recent investigations into the importance of vitamin D and it is now believed it is essential to muscular and skeletal function.

The women who are involved in athletic competition, not only have to focus on training but maintain a strict diet. This requires a good knowledge base of of nutrition. From the early 20th century to present exercise physiologists have figured out the role of nutrition in athletic performance. Understanding that women’s metabolism functions differently has led to the structuring of  more efficient training programs. Women still must eat to feed growing muscle,but is should be understood that more of that food could be metabolized into fat. That is why activity level should be adjusted to compensate for the endocrinological function. Even though women have proven to be great athletes, male performances levels are still higher. This extends beyond anatomy, but to biology.

          The difference in physical fitness capacity is rooted in biology, through human evolution. Sexual dimorphism is the reason why on average men are stronger. Most primates demonstrate a degree of sexual dimorphism. These are attributes that are secondary sex characteristics, which exclude the reproductive system. During the course of human evolution the size and strength difference may have been a natural selection tool. Male authralopiths most likely fought each other for access to mates. Larger size and strength would have given an edge to the hominin who wanted to spread his genes. The females did not have to fight, so therefore it was easier to just pick a victor in a struggle. While it is hard to test this theory, it can be seen in mating strategies of modern primates. Gorillas function with a male who heads a harem of females. When another gorilla challenges him he will fight to maintain dominance. So, over time the strength and size genes continued to be propagated in the primates species. A changes in environment can influence evolution. When our early ancestors got access to more protein based diets, endocranial  volume increased. Between six and two million years ago brain size increased. Around 17,000 years ago homo sapiens became the only survivor on the evolutionary tree. Evolution was not a linear progression, but a series of branches that came from divergence.


Humanity occupies the homo branch, with the other species becoming extinct. Relevant to the future woman is it possible that given the right conditions that average woman can become stronger? Evolution has the power to change the body structure of organisms so it would seem like a possibility. During the process of human evolution the body went from being heavily built to adapt to colder climates ( 400,000 years ago) to a lighter body ( 50,000 to 20,000 years ago ). Internally the intestines became shorter to accommodate an omnivorous diet. Assuming what is known about human evolution is correct, theoretically it could take millions of years for women to change their physiology. This certainly could not be witness in our current lifetime. Still with a sudden change it will also effect men as well. The article predicted that women’s height would increase. If women changed it would men could see an increase in height as well due to the genetic attributes of sexual dimorphism.

If men already have the genetic trait for more  height, it is likely it would not disappear because natural selection has favored it. Only when it is no longer favored will it disappear. It should also be understood  many elements of a species can be adaptable. There are women who are stronger than men and taller. They are not the average, but have inherited traits that have been passed down generations. The reason that certain species survive is that they have a variation in genetic information, can acclimate to various environments, and pass on genes through offspring to ensure survival. The phrase “survival of the fittest ” is not a correct description. By all standards homo neanderthalensis should have survived based on the fact it was physically stronger. They survived a colder climate. but died out after 30,000 years ago. They could not adapt to the changing environment. Homo sapiens did mainly due to their increased reasoning skills. Nature favored brains over brawn and humanity began to spread through out the Earth, except Antarctica. Sexual dimorphism continues to be a physical trait that proves human evolution. Humanity and other organisms continue to evolve depending on the condition of their environment. Humanity has acquire such a vast knowledge of science it will be possible to manipulate our own biology. This could be done through genetic engineering, surgery, and technology itself.

            There are physiological difference that exist that products of sexual dimorphism. Men have more type II muscle fibers, while women have more type I. Muscular contraction is essential for movement or any athletic performance. Muscular endurance describes how long the muscular contraction can last. Men  and women can have similar levels of muscular endurance. Women may have more, because they fatigue slower. When comparing men and women of a similar size men would still have more upper body strength. When the size is held constant it is estimated that women could be at least 80% as strong. The remaining percentage points account for the upper body disparity.  Cardiovascular physiology  plays a role in oxygen transport. During exercise oxygen is transported to the muscles to form adenosine triphosphate. This then provides energy for muscular contraction. Hemoglobin housed within red blood cells has to transport oxygen from the lungs to other tissues of the body. Larger lungs and hearts contribute to men’s 50% greater aerobic power. Women however may have an easier time converting glycogen into energy, which aids in endurance. Women’s higher fat levels are useful in long distance swimming and running, because it can aids in metabolism. Estrogen-B could also be responsible for fatigue resistance during muscular contraction in women. A combination of biological, anatomical, and physiological factors explain the gap in athletic performance. There can also be overlap, but this is explained by unique physiology of particular individuals.

Women's growth

Women have grown taller, but the average height is not six feet tall. 

Dorthy Roe’s prediction make the mistake of not taking into account particular factors. If this were to be average as she claimed it would mean that every woman would have to have the same nutrition and access to certain opportunities. Then genetics plays a role in the possible maximum physical potential. Then it also has to do with choice. How many women would actually want to achieve that level strength? The hilarious aspect of this prediction was the statement “muscles of a truck driver.” Driving a truck requires little physical strength. The job is mostly sedentary and therefore would not be the best for your health. Sitting too long for extended periods of time has been linked to heart related and weight issues. The question remains why are there not more women truck drivers? Again, discrimination is an obvious answer, but personal choice is another. Job seekers will only go to jobs that could benefit them the most economically. Companies may just not try to recruit women, even if they have positions opened. Despite this, there are women who are involved in trucking.

The only difference is that the truck has to be ergonomically designed to suit the female driver. All trucks have to in order to make the seat comfortable for the driver. Driving long periods of time in one particular position could cause back and neck issues. Part of the problem is that people still think their are men’s jobs and women’s jobs in the workforce. This dated concept not only harms women, but could be hindering economic growth. A functional economy must have a low unemployment rate to keep consumption up. Women must be part of the workforce to maintain economic stability. There are some occupations in which women’s numbers may still remain smaller relative to men’s due to differences in maximum physiological capacity. This does not mean there will not be any women in those positions. There are women who, even with the noted sex differences can outperform many men.

The female athlete will be in better shape or either just as strong or stronger than the average man depending on which training regimen is used. So, in this sense the prediction was only a part truth. A group of women have become stronger physically across the world who compete in both local and  international sports competition. The total number of women on Earth have not become physically stronger. Health has improved as indicated by women’s increased life expectancy . Women have the edge in terms of durational strength, living longer in most cases. The wonderful element about humanity is that it is diverse and can be flexible with its environments.

There can be strong women who are short. Tall women who are not the strongest or women of average build. The same can also be with men as well. The genetic variation protects the human species from genetically inherited diseases. That diversity helps, but has not completely eliminated such ailments. The article does not say that the average woman will become physiologically similar to a man, just that she will reach at higher fitness level. The implication that women will be able to compete en mass with men in mixed competition does not seem probable. However, there is a possibility that individual elite female athletes could beat an elite male athlete. There it would be presumptuous to say that it could never happen. It is just at the moment is not happening in the future Dorthy Roe predicted. A hypothesis should not be a mere prediction, but thoughtful estimation of probable outcomes.

Women still have to work harder to attain a high level of physical fitness. While their are women who have more natural strength than others, they are a unique exception. More training just enhances their physical potential. There is a new phenomenon. Women are now competing in sports at larger numbers compared to the past. Women’s involvement in sports dates back to the ancient world being documented in Greek and Egyptian civilization. There has never been a period in history to date in which women have embrace sports and physical fitness to this extent. Not only that, but women are seeking to build as much muscle and strength for their particular sports. While their is traditional backlash and divide in public opinion there is a portion of people who are embracing this change. The physiques that women display across various sports would be inconceivable  to many 200 years ago. Some women it seems have become the amazons of the future.

       It is clear that women have enter areas that sole were male domains. The change in women’s status is spreading not just in the West, but in the Global South. Status and progress in a society depends on the historical, sociological, and political situation. There is a possibility that civilization could collapse from mass global warfare, dramatic climate change, pandemics, or economic instability. Such events would mean the reversal of progress and even the end of humanity itself. When the fabric of society is unstable women and other marginalized groups suffer the most. Women could lose the little rights and opportunities they have if there were a change in political regime. Active organizing and vigilance can prevent such occurrences. A faction of futurist believe that in the coming years the world will become a better place. Like the utopian science fiction of the early 20th century, it seems out of reach. Both World Wars and the following Cold War proved that The Jetsons like future seems more imaginary. There is more advanced technology, but with it comes other problems. Roe’s predictions fall into the more utopia version of futurism. Her predictions would not seem so outrageous if she did not say that the average woman would be an amazon in terms of physique. As for height, women have not on average reached the six foot range. The tallest women in the world live in Latvia and the Netherlands. When Roe was writing this, she was only thinking about America.

Height chart

The US does not place in the current record of tallest men and women. This does not mean we do not have our own tall people. It should be no surprise that experts writing this in 1950 were off. They did not have a vast body of knowledge to base predictions on and human evolution was still though of as a linear progression rather than a series of branches coming from a root. The more precise assessment that could have been stated is that women of the future would greatly enhance their physical fitness capacity. Title IX was and continues to be an important law that allowed for many American women to become active in sports. Those women who first benefited from it went on to be top performing Olympic athletes and  the law still continues to make this possible. That is an example of how when barriers are removed  the numbers increased. Then another development happened that was not just in the US, but seems to be spreading around the world. Women who are enthusiastic about weightlifting are becoming serious competitors. It was not until the year 2000 that women’s weightlifting was added to the Olympic Games. Maybe the prediction of Roe’s amazons was not entirely incorrect.

Prior to women’s weightlifting, women had worked out with weights. This was mainly in bodybuilding, which had its origins in the 1970s. The early pioneers of women’s strength sports worked out with weight even when the gyms tried to prevent them from going to such sections and faced harsh ostracism. Now, it does not seem so abnormal to see even the average woman doing some weight training. Their intent may not be to be a professional athlete, but to simply maintain and control body weight. Women are no longer afraid to show physical strength or actual muscular development. Dorothy Roe may have predicted accurately what the average female athlete would be like. The average woman could vary between ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic body structure. Height as well will vary as seen from sets of data. The conclusion would thus have to be modified. The average woman will be participating in various fields in the future. Improved health, physical activity, and nutrition will mean some women will reach physiological capacities greater than previously thought. Technology although helpful may cause adverse health effects that lead to a sedentary life style. The tendency for futurologists to be sensationalist leads to imprecise conclusions. To make precise assessments, one most take a rational method of analysis.

“In The Future, All Women Will Be Amazons” From The Smithsonian

What is an Alcoholic by Kortney Olsen

Kortney Olsen bodybuilder and champion armwrestler explains what alcoholism is in this video. Modern medicine now has come to the realization that addiction is a disease. It has both biological and sociological factors. Chemical dependence alters the function of particular neurotransmitters. There is also a human cost. Families become dysfunctional when a member becomes subject to addiction. Children with parents who are alcoholics live in unstable households. Kortney speaks about her struggles with addiction and being a child of an alcoholic parent. Alcoholism is a broad based term, but is not specifically a disease. It can sometimes be classified as a psychiatric condition known as alcohol dependence syndrome. There are many reasons why people become alcoholics. Stress, life trauma, genetic factors, and availability of substances. Then there is limited self control. While Korntey says it has nothing to do will power, this is not entirely true. Living in a society of abundance encourages people to over indulge and be excessive in various areas of life. Through counseling, interventions, and medical research alcoholism can be effectively fought.

What is an Alcoholic by Kortney Olsen

Does Muscle Weigh More Than Fat?

A common fitness and biology myth is that muscle weighs more than fat. This is incorrect when examined from two different elements of exercise science. It should be understood that weight and mass are two different concepts. These terms are used interchangeably, but obviously do not have the same definition. Once these terms are understood it can help contribute to the understanding why muscle cannot weigh more than fat. Another factor that effects body composition is metabolism. Besides that the endocrine system plays a role and the hormones it produces. When engaging in a consistent exercise regimen, lean body mass can increase depending on genetic body type. Fat tissue will decrease, but it will appear as if weight has gone up. This can be easily explained by scientific concepts.

      Mass can be defined as ” the fundamental property which measures the amount of matter contained within an object.” One of the properties of an object with mass is to resist being moved. Objects with mass tend to resist a change in speed or direction. This phenomenon of physics is known as intertia. This explains why when a person runs at high speeds it is difficult for a person to change direction immediately. Weight can be defined as ” the total force exerted on a body due to gravitation.” Objects attract one another by gravitation, which is a fundamental force of the universe. To prevent confusion , science has used the units similar for weight on Earth and mass. Dayana Cadeau when competing weighed 150 lbs( 68.03 kg). If she were to be on a space ship her mass would not disappear from her body. She would be weightless, due to the face gravitation is not acting on her body. Gravitation is proportional to the mass and declines with distance.

 The Earth’s gravitational force is acting on her body. The only way to break free from it is to achieve escape velocity. Force is measured in newtons (N). Mass is measured in kilograms (Kg). When people use the phrase ” I want to lose weight” it should be I want to reduce the total mass of fat composition on my body. That would be more precise that losing weight, because the only way that would happen is if the Earth’s gravitation cease to exist. These concepts are the basics of classical physics. Newtonian mechanics falls under this branch. Physics mostly attempts to understand matter  and its relation to the universe. Understanding these definitions of mass and weight  explain why muscles weighing more than fat is not scientifically sound.

      There is the consideration of space used on the human body . Matter takes up space and the body is matter. Muscle is much more dense compared to fat. Muscle can take as much as four -fifths of space. This also relates to size of a person. A taller and larger person has the ability to sustain more total mass, because the skeleton would be larger compared to a smaller person. This also explains why a people of the same height and weight may wear different clothing sizes. It depends on the amount of body fat percentage and how it is distributed on the body. There also is a consideration in density. Density describes the mass per unit volume. It appears that muscle in a single unit may have more density if compared in a same size unit to fat. The average density of fat is 0.9 g/ml compared to 1.1 g/ml of muscle. Muscle can in liter form be 1.6 kg (2.3 lbs)compared to 9 kg (1.98 lbs). This does not mean a muscular person will weigh more than a fat person. These averages vary depending on if the person is extremely lean or morbidly obese. A kilogram  of muscle will still be equal to a kilogram  of fat.

It is clear here who would weigh more. The muscular person will not have more mass compared to the fatter person. 

This can be deceiving, but it does not automatically the muscular person would weigh more. That also explains why the body mass index is not entirely accurate measure of healthy weight. A short muscular person could be inaccurate placed in the obese range simply because their mass in not in that height bracket.

         When discussing fat and muscle there is the consideration of metabolism. The endocrine system and hormones also play a role in this process. Estrogen and testosterone function differently. Muscle has the ability to burn seven to ten calories daily per pound. Fat can only achieve two to three calories daily per pound. Testosterone has an anabolic effect on the muscular system allowing for greater muscular hypertrophy. Men produce more, which explains why it is easier for them to lose weight and gain muscle. Women do produce testosterone, in lower levels and estrogen increases body fat. Even the most muscular woman still carries close to 8% body fat. Muscle still can be a great burner of  calories. Getting engaged in a strength training regimen can help burn at least for to six calories a day. It is possible under a consistent exercise regimen to gain at least five pounds of  muscle mass in three months depending on morphic body type. This requires consistent use of the muscles through exercise to increase net caloric effect. It is plausible that in a span of months( under a training regimen) this can amount to 30 calories per day. The basal metabolic rate describes the calories you burn during rest. Oddly enough, this amounts to 75% of the calories you burn in a day. It is good for one’s health to keep body fat low and remain active. Heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers are associated with weight related problems.Understanding metabolism and how it works with hormones can help prevent such ailments.

         Muscle can make you gain mass and increase weight. This is lean body mass, but it is not harmful. Weight that is gained through excessive eating, gland or hormonal abnormalities, or being too sedentary can be hazardous to health. Diet is essential to any training regimen. Weigh loss can be effective with diet, but with exercise it will be permanent. This reveals that different forms of training can produce varied results. If one wants to merely lose fat, without lean body mass gain, it can be done.

Losing mass in terms of fat is demonstrated here.
Here is a demonstration of gaining muscle mass in exchange for fat.

What this comes down to is what method is used and what are the particular fitness goals. This is the difference between exercise to gain weight ( muscle mass) and exercise to lose ( fat tissue). Strength training is emphasized when trying to gain or make weight. Majors muscle groups have to be exercised including arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. This includes working each muscle group in an exercise session. Besides training rest is also pivotal. The body needs time to repair the muscle tissue that will be rebuilt into a stronger muscle. Losing fat tissue rather than gaining muscle mass has another technique. It has been common to either emphasize aerobics or cardiovascular exercise a method. However, recently it seems that solely doing these exercises may not be enough to be effective. Using both weight training and some cardiovascular exercise has been found to be more efficient.The increase in lean body mass does not mean a person failed in their fitness goal.

       Muscles based on what is known about exercise physiology and physics cannot weigh more than fat. Weight being the function of gravitation explains this. The term that should be accurately employed is mass. Density also is another concept that gets used interchangeably  with these terms. There are numerous fitness myths that are spread around. This one tends to be another common one. Limited knowledge could sabotage some individuals. A woman seeking to reduce body fat may try strength training and be alarmed at what the scale indicates. It is not showing that you gained fat tissue, but lean body mass. They may quit a method that is effective without realizing it . Full comprehension between the definitions of mass and weight can help end the confusion. Weight and mass are not the same entity.

Further Reading

Kent, Linda. “A Pound of Fat Vs. a Pound of Muscle.” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group, 21 Apr. 2015. Web. 28 Dec. 2016. <;.

Sheldon, Lyenne. “Can Gaining Muscle Make You Gain Weight?” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group, 13 May 2015. Web. 28 Dec. 2016. <;.

Barnes-Svarney. The Science Reference Desk. New York : The Stonesong press, 1995.

Does Muscle Weigh More Than Fat?


Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which bones become brittle and weaken. Through out the human life cycle bones are remolded. From childhood from adulthood bone mass increases, but as humans age it will decrease. Both men and women can get osteoporosis, but it has a more dramatic effect on women. The reasons for this are related to biological  sex differences. Sex hormones play a vital role in bone health. There are also other factors that contribute to being at risk. The exact cause of the disease is not known, but there are some attributes of the known about the disease that can treat it.Having some understanding of the skeletal system can contribute to prevention. Humans may be susceptible to osteoporosis, because unlike other primates in the animal kingdom our bones are more porous. Bipedalism came with a price. Walking upright gave humans an advantage in evolutionary history, but meant we would have more back, foot, and skeletal problems. Certain measures can be taken to prevent osteoporosis. This is very important for women considering they live longer. Bone health becomes more critical as people reach advanced age.

        The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. Along with the muscles, they contribute to the locomotion of the body. Muscles contract moving bones. The bones store calcium an element required for muscle contraction as well. Bone marrow produces red and white blood cells. It also has the function of producing the platelets. Bones are placed in different categories. Cortical bones include leg and arm bones that can hold and support  weight. Compact bones such as the skull and hip are stacked for fortitude. Trabecular bones which are the vertebrae of the spine act a network pathway for nerves of the body. ligaments attach bones to other bones and are flexible in structure. Cartilage is another type of tissue present in the skeletal system providing support to joints. Men and women have the same bones, but there are structural differences. Men have denser bones and broader shoulders. Women have wider hips and less bone total bone mass. This also explains why on average men  are stronger. Muscle fibers need skeletal support for motion and the bone mass contributes to total body force. Between the ages 1 to 13 bone mass and muscle composition is equal among boys and girls. When puberty occurs, testosterone causes muscular hypertrophy and a increase in bone mass in boys. Skeletal mass continues to increase in both sexes between the ages of 20 to 30. The rate of bone formation is greater in youth. Around the ages 40 to 50 their is an equal rate of bone breakdown. Formation does not occur at the same rate at the time of youth. Bone mass will decrease due to a higher rate of reabsorption.

Women have less bone mass as compared to men. Peak bone mass for women only reaches an estimate of 1000g as compared men’s 1500g.

   The formation rate cannot keep up with the loss that is occurring with age. The reason for the disparity is that men have a larger amount of bone mass. Men can lose up to 25 % of their bone mass while women can lose 35%. The skeletal system just like other organ systems can develop health issues.

         Endocrinology explains the reason for women’s higher rate of osteoporosis. Sex hormones promote bone strength through out life. When testosterone and estrogen levels decline problems arise. Men’s testosterone levels decline slower and by age 65 drop significantly. Women’s estrogen levels start to decline as early as age 45. This means women are at greater risk for fractures in the cortical bones, pelvis, and hip vertebrae. This is a disease that happens when people age, which explains why it is rare to see younger people with it. Children still need regular exercise to build up as much bone mass as possible to prevent this disease.Even though men are at a lower risk, it is still something to be conscious of. It is possible for menopause to cause some level of bone loss.After menopause resorption occurs faster than bone production. Women can experience this with early menopause or infrequent menstrual periods. It can also happen if women’s estrogen levels get extremely low.


 Hormone replacement therapy has been recommended for women who have less than average bone mass , early menopause, or a genetic history of the disease in their family. Hormone replacement therapy has risks of its own and that is why prevention is normally favored.

        There are methods that can be utilized to prevent osteoporosis. Getting adequate calcium in your diet can help. The U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends 1,500 mg during puberty  The amount for adults is projected at 1000 mg. Past the age of 65 the intake should be about 1,500 mg. Vitamin D is also an essential part of bone health. Sunlight is important to this process, because it synthesizes a precursor to vitamin D. Calcium is important to a person’s diet and can be found in dairy products. People who have lactose intolerance consuming leafy green vegetables , broccoli, and salmon. These foods contain high amounts of calcium and aid in other nutritional needs. Yogurt or cheese can be an option if digesting milk is too much of an issue. Lactose free dairy products are also available as an option.

Fresh air is good for you in more ways than one. Some areas during winter do not have enough sunlight so it would be difficult for the body to produce vitamin D. The woman here would have no trouble producing vitamin D here, because she is on a sunny beach.

 People who live in the global North and experience long overcast winters should be conscious of their vitamin D levels. Milk ( low fat ) and cereal contain vitamin D, which can make up for the lack of sunlight. Other supplements and medicines are more helpful. Diet is important, but exercise is also required as a prevention measure. Moderate activity can build bone mass. Inactivity causes problems for the body. Inactive individuals who are confined to bed can lose up to 25 times more bone mass compared to active people. The body is designed for physical work and use. Not using it causes decline. Muscles atrophy if not used or exercised. The skeleton which is just as pivotal will also struggle to perform formation of new bone. When people reach adulthood the skeleton will constantly be broken down by osteoclasts  and rebuilt by osteocytes. Old bone matter is replaced by new bone through a remodeling.

Being confined to a bed or inactive for long periods of time causes a person to lose skeletal mass. This is a concern for patients in a hospital. Muscle mass can be lost from inactivity.

The exercises that promote optimum bone health  are weightlifting, walking, or jogging. lifting weights does not only build muscles it can reinforce bone. Being active in youth can prevent bone mass decrease. Doing this also provides other health benefits. It can manage weight  and maintain a healthy circulatory system.  To understand the nature of how delicate the skeletal system is, the bone growth process needs to be examined. A majority of bones are made of cartilage during the prenatal development. The cartilage structures are formed into bones by calcium salts stored in a matrix. Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for bone formation. This causes endochondral   ossification, which means replacement bone will be formed in the body.  The rate of growth is controlled by sex hormones and growth hormones. Growth plates are located between the primary ossification center and each secondary center area. These centers at one point will fuse and the skeleton will reach full growth.

302917684 runwalk

Osteoclasts  deposit calcium in the blood. Their role in maintaining calcium levels contributes to the homeostasis of the skeletal organ system. Osteoblasts must replace the retired cells. They take calcium from the blood to form new bone matter. The cells get caught in the matrix and form osteocytes.  The human body is a hard working organic  machine.

      Although osteoporosis can strike many individuals, certain groups  are at risk. Individuals who have a slender body type are  at risk. The ectomorphic body types are ones that contain low levels of bone mass. Having less body mass means the skeleton can be weakened more from the disease. Fractures are a major concern for people with osteoporosis. For thin boned people it could be more devastating.People erroneously associate thinness with health, but that in this case is not truthful. Being white or Asian can mean that getting the disease is more likely. This does not mean every person of that race will get it. The likelihood just increases due to genetic traits among  these groups. Family history plays a role in the risk factors for osteoporosis. Genes allow you to inherit various traits and this can apply to predisposition to certain diseases.

Although Tomoko is Asian that does not mean she would get osteoporosis. Doing the proper health procedures can prevent various diseases.

 oddly enough being a smoker can also contribute to increased risk factors. It is well known that smoking can cause harm to the lungs and respiratory system, but it has the ability to increase the chances for osteoporosis.  Alcohol and high caffeine consumption can also be risk factors. Smoking and drinking do not only harm one organ system; many can be effected by excess consumption. Alcohol can damage the liver and effect the health of your skeleton later in life. Taking note of these risk factors can allow individuals to control their biomedical condition.

          Measuring bone density is a method of detecting if osteoporosis is present. One method is the dual  energy X-ray  absorptiometry.  Bone density is measured by the amount of photons absorbed by the bone from an X-ray tube. Blood and urine tests are conducted to examine the biochemical nature of the subjects bone. If a marker appears that indicates the bones are too thin a physician will recommend treatment. Hormone therapy is one suggested treatment. The use of black cohosh or phytoestrogen, which is estrogen produced by a plant. Calcitonin  can be utilized, which can inhibit the osteoclasts. Preventing the osteoclasts from breaking down too much bone and allow for more to be restored. Alendronate therapy acts in a similar fashion. It attempts to build bone to prevent further fractures. Three years of this treatment has shown that spinal density can increase about 8% and hip density about 7%.  These are older treatments and biomedical science continues to advance rapidly. Knowing  the nature of the skeleton and its disease can stop possible health issues.

Further Reading

Mader, Syvia. Biology. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007.

“Menopause & Osteoporosis.” Cleveland Clinic. N.p., 8 Aug. 2015. Web. 5 May 2016. <;.


Health Recommendations For Women Entering Combat

The 1994 ban on women in combat has been lifted. Women are soon going to be entering physically demanding positions in the US army, Marines, Navy, and Air Force. Sex integration is becoming a reality. Besides the other considerations in regards to standards, what is often ignored is the health of the soldiers. This includes physical and mental well being. If women are to enter combat they should know how to avoid injury and keep their bodies at peak physical condition. There are health concerns that women face in larger numbers than their male counterparts. Musculoskeletal injuries are a huge issue for women. For all soldiers doubtless of sex, these injuries  are becoming more common sue to the fact gear and armor is heavier. A more disturbing revelation is the prevalence of sexual assault in the US military. It has become a bigger health and crime crisis over the past decades. The most ignored is the problems in regards to mental health. A soldier may survive war with no physical ailment, but mental scars are harder to detect. Even though these health issues are numerous, there are solutions.

         Women suffer more musculoskeletal injuries than their male counterparts in the US military. There are biological reason for this disparity. Men have denser bones, ligaments, and tendons. The male body contains more muscle mass. Women have a lighter bone structure and more body fat. Stress fractures cause long term health issues. Although men do get injured it causes more problems for women. Detractors use the higher injury rates  as a justification for maintaining the ban on women in combat. The average woman will struggle as an infantry soldier marching with packs that are 80 to 100 pounds on their backs. Spinal cord and connective tissue injuries have increased during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The new gear soldiers acquire weighs more and it is clear they are being overloaded. According to a study “Musculoskeletal Injuries in Military Women” they have up to 52% higher injuries compared to 26% of males injuries in basic training. It is true men are stronger than women, but the injury rate is still high for that sample of males. One would expect it to be possibly around 5% to 16% under favorable conditions for males. This means that it may not be beyond women’s  physical capacity . The reason males had lower injury rates is because they had more strength natural  strength initially  ( no weight training )so overloading or  training in an incorrect manner   would not effect them as much. Women who have less natural strength would get injured more. It is critical that women build their strength as much as possible before entering an physically demanding military position.


Building upper body strength is a requirement for these jobs.

 These injuries can be reduced with a change in policy. The Army Science Board had concluded that soldiers were overloaded and that it hindered speed including mobility. Armor and boots must be designed to fit the female body. This can solve some of the burden in mechanical action. Women will need to train harder and longer due to physiological differences. Even with training most women will not perform to the same level of an equally trained man. Males have a larger cross section in separate muscle fibers . This explains why there are not large numbers of women in foreign armies, besides the more obvious presence of discrimination. The problem of heavy gear must be addressed to avoid drop out rates among soldiers. The UK has a similar issue with overloading. The average UK soldier carries more gear than what they would have during the war in the Falklands. UK soldiers may have it worse carrying up to 145 pounds in equipment. This is causing soldiers to fatigue faster than normal. The US soldier’s gear has different weight depending  on the specific role. Weather specific gear also causes some problems. Cold weather gear is close to 101.5 pounds, while warm weather is 88.3. Rifle platoon soldier’s load is 91 pounds.Loads must be tailored to a particular mission. Unnecessary items have to be discarded. The comfort items will have to go for the sake of bone health. Lower back pain, scoliosis, and stress fractures can ruin careers for soldiers.Seeing as women have less bone mass these can be major health issues. Scoliosis is particularly troubling due to the fact the spine with develop curvature and could require surgeries.


 If the US military does not make the needed changes disability compensation will increase. Bone spurs and arthritic conditions become permanent for some soldiers. One third of medical evacuations from Afghanistan and Iraq between 2004 and 2007 were due to spinal and connective tissue injuries. According to the study by a Johns Hopkins University researcher that is more than double the injuries from actual combat. It has been estimated that the Department of Veterans Affairs had exceeded $ 500.000,000 in disability payments for these injuries. It has been proven that even the strongest woman or man will get some form of injury when carrying a 100 pounds for just a year. Pain killers are a temporary solution, but this has a risk of an individual becoming addicted. Other methods such as acupuncture, message, and chiropractic care should be considered. Having an understanding of ergonomics and lightening the load of gear can reduce injuries . Musculoskeletal injuries are described as harm or damage to the muscle or skeletal system due to rigorous or strenuous physical activity.


There is a difference between these types of injuries. Fractures are when the bone has been broken. Dislocation refers to the disruption of a joint from where it is suppose to be. Sprains refer to the tearing of the ligaments. Strains are when muscles are stretched  or torn. Repetitive motion can increase the possibility of individuals acquiring these injuries. The solution would be to have women train in gear to simulate what daily activities will be like. Their bodies must adjust to rigorous activity. Lowering gear loads will be a big help. A change will not only make healthier soldiers, but reduce medical expenses.

          Conditioning and physical strength are essential to the health of military women. Strength makes it possible to perform particular tasks in military occupational specialties. Although men would have more physical strength, women may also have some useful physical advantages. Women have more body fat, but may be better at burning it as energy early on during periods of physical activity. This means their physical endurance could be higher. Men’s higher amount of muscle and free circulating testosterone means they are using more energy. Men would fatigue earlier than women. It has been speculated that it is because women recruit muscle groups in a more efficient manner according to the Journal of Applied Physiology. The gap in physical strength and speed has raised concerns, but it can be narrowed. Men can on average have 26 pounds more skeletal  muscle than women. Smaller hearts , lungs, and  a wider pelvis means women have slower run speeds.The automatic assumption is that biology limits them. This is not true because weight training can not only build muscle, but increase bone mass. Stronger bones and muscles means carrying tank shells or performing casualty drags will not be an issue.

Pauline Nordin (10)

Diet is also critical. Soldiers need to be fed healthy meals low in sugar and saturated fat. There are some cases in which soldiers may gain weight from a poor eating habits. Weight management programs will have to be put in place to prevent this. Obesity is a growing problem for American society and it is caused by certain life style choices. Most Americans would need some type of weight management program if they wanted to join the US military. Women also need to have a healthy diet, because the way metabolize food differs . Estrogen stores more fat and it is harder for women to lose weight. Extra body fat only acts as dead weight when carrying loads. Type II muscle fiber is has more explosive power than body fat. Women must meet the same standards as men. The US military has changed standards over the years, but this is to reflect the environment of battlefield tasks . Sit-ups, push-ups, and two mile runs may be emphasized less as compared to casualty drags or  loading 25 mm shells for guns on Bradley vehicle. Regular exercises   should not be phased out. These prevent injuries and diseases. The assumption that women cannot do this has been proven false, when the three pull-ups requirement controversy was challenged. When women stopped doing the flexed arm hang, only then was there improvement. If women were never shown how to do this correctly, it would be ludicrous to assume they could get it right the first attempt.

  Major General Mike Murray and Staff Sergeant Terry Kemp   who tested a group of women volunteers at Fort Stewart in 2014 noted that women acquired physical skills with just a month of training.  This experiment found that women utilized their core and legs more in tasks requiring strength. This small army study helps with designing a fitness program for women. Upper body exercises need to be emphasized. Doing more push-ups and pull-ups can reverse some disparity between the upper and lower body. There is a specific method for building upper arm strength for a woman. Bicep curls are effective. When beginning a training regimen always consult your doctor. When doing this start with the lowest weight and over a period of time add more.Only add more when you can easily do the current weight level over a series of weeks. Tricep kickbacks are also recommended . Bench dips can also add to upper arm strength. These are only a few of some practical solutions.

Some women are going to be stronger than others. The most athletic ones will find doing physical tasks easier. Even at that level they will still have to push themselves to their full athletic performance level. Chareece Moore for example has a military career, but her devotion to physical fitness lets allows her to perform better. Many still believe women are not capable of lifting heavy objects or grown men from a battlefield. Cahreece would have no problem doing this if there was a need for it. The NPC bodybuilder projects and demonstrates  immense strength. There is the concern that women would struggle with moving the injured in combat gear.


If the combat gear is reduced in weight as the military promised, this can be solved too. If women self-pace managing loads they can successfully remove a fellow comrade. Besides moving people or objects physical strength is pivotal to ones safety. If ammunition runs out or weapons are lost hand to hand combat is needed. Just being strong does not make a person a great fighter; skill is the most important component. Then there is a physiological element of remaining calm in stressful situations.The average woman has less upper body strength and is slower in running speed, which means building strength and emphasizing fighting skills is critical. Women attempting to fight a man with just her bare hands would leave them at a disadvantage. Knowing self-defense techniques and martial arts can reverse some, but not all of the disparity. Hand grip strength is vast among the sexes. This is quite significant for a person in a fight considering fists are that primary part of the body used. A study of women Judo martial artists and handballers examined hand grip strength with athletic males and non-athletic males in the European Journal of Applied Physiology in 2006 . It showed that 90 percent of women scored lower than 95 percent of men. The athletic women score 75 % worse than men on the same task. The result of this may be that men have lager hands, therefore being able to exert more force. The athletic women were still stronger than non-athletic women meaning training can build some strength.

maxresdefault (7)
Women can reach at least an average male’s level of strength through training, but rarely perform at top levels of athletically trained males. Here Amber Betchel  arm wrestles a man with no training. If she did not have any she would not be able to beat him.

 Women in combat will most likely be fighting other men. Knowing judo, karate, or taekwondo may help women who are smaller be able to fend off an enemy when disarmed. While strength is important to the job, mental strength has to be built up with it. Any recruit could pass the training, but may not be psychologically prepared for possible dangers. This could cause a person to be paralyzed with fear when a situation is critical. That feeling has to be controlled so that self-defense moves can be executed. Also, there needs to be a level of confidence in the performance. Just because women are smaller does not mean they are not able to inflict physical harm. There are instances in which people who were underweight or smaller could be just as good fighters. Audie Murphy at 5 7′ and 130 pounds when he enlisted in the Marines. He was rejected, but at the end of World War II he ended up with many medals for his combat service. His lower weight did not stop his combat capability.


Christy Resendes  weighs up to 142 pounds ( 170 in the off season). As you can see it is mostly muscle and it can be assumed that she would be stronger than Audie Murphy. The diffrence is he would not be banned from combat, because he is male. Christy if she wanted to joined would be banned even if she could perform the same tasks.

Soldiers come in all different sizes. There is the common image of the large hulking male soldier that has been seen in fictional depictions and popular entertainment. Physical strength does win wars.Technology, tactics, and a lucid understanding of the enemy determines ultimate success.  If physical strength was a major factor then the United States would have won Vietnam. The average US soldier weighed more and was taller than the average Viet cong  fighter. Yet they were victorious by using guerrilla  warfare against America’s conventional strategy. It is forgotten that women fought in the Viet cong  and their sex did not hinder their objectives. They had less training and less resources compared the US soldier. What was demonstrated was a high level of mental strength. This requires a soldier to accept harsh conditions, be resilient, and continue no matter what the circumstance. The Vietnamese communist believed in their cause and were willing to sacrifice themselves for it.  The National Liberation Front wanted to see Vietnam united and free from foreign rule and influence. This type of mental strength must be developed as much as the physical.

Female Viet Cong Warrior c.1973

army gal
The assumption is that the US Army woman would automatically be the better fighter. This is not the case, because the NLF fighter may be more willing to fight to the death. A scenario in which these two fight it is clear to see the advantages. The US Amy woman has more strength, but it would only be useful if she were disarmed. The NLF fighter has more mental toughness living in a hostile environment.

Being in peak physical condition helps with certain tasks. However, there is a growing issue in regards to mental health.

         The US military has ignored the growing problem of declining mental health of soldiers and veterans. Health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and severe brain injuries are reaching astronomical levels.  A study conducted by the military in 2014 found shocking results. Soldiers have higher rates of mental illness than do civilians.Another part of the study claimed about 14% of soldiers had contemplated suicide . Other mental disorders such as depression, intermittent explosive disorder, and addiction were common. Dependence on alcohol and other drugs became prevalent. The soldiers that decided to commit suicide would not do it overseas, but instead did it when they returned home. This has been the unseen trouble with a military career. It leaves mental scars from carnage and brutality. This has been seen though out history. During World War I soldiers suffered from “shell shock.” It was a term for soldiers who were having mental turmoil from the violence they witnessed. The United States after World War II had to invest in mental health programs to get former soldiers to adjust to civilian life. The troops that went to  fight  in the Vietnam War received very little assistance. Even worse they were blamed for what corrupt leaders in both the Democratic and Republican Party did to Vietnam. Many of the Vietnam veterans suffered from mental health issues, drug addiction, or had to deal with homelessness. The mistakes of the past should not be repeated. Outreach programs must be developed to prevent serious social consequences of a health epidemic. Troops should be given reasonable tours of duty, so they can have enough rest and be rejuvenated  when they return. Younger soldiers could be at risk more so, because it may be their first time away from home. Family and friends are a support structure that a recruit must keep in contact with. Older soldiers now how to deal with the loneliness and long periods away from loved ones. For anyone entering the US military, you must understand the difficulties and challenges. Most experiences will not be pleasant ones. Women  veterans are likely to suffer from more metal health issues. This is related to military sexual trauma, which includes rape, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Women are becoming a growing section of the homeless veteran population. The solution to this is not only having outreach programs, but encourage soldiers to get help. People with mental illness may not seek help, due to the societal stigma surrounding it.There is no shame in seeking help. The US military teaches soldiers to be tough regardless of the situation.Even the strongest people need emotional support. women-marines-570x342

It has to be known that it is necessary to seek mental health assistance. Therapists must employed in higher numbers to address mental health issues. Simply discharging soldiers will not solve the problem. Traumatic brain injuries are also on the rise. Soldiers should have mandatory screenings to make sure they have not sustained concussions. This could have a link to increase in mental illness, but so far it is only speculative. The symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury include headache, dizziness, blurred vision, inability to concentrate or retain memory, fatigue, lethargy, erratic sleep patterns, constant mood swings, and a bad taste in the mouth. A severe traumatic brain injury has symptoms much more intense. These include vomiting, nausea, headaches, convulsions or seizures, confusion, loss of coordination, slurred speech, and   anisocoria. These injuries are related to harm inflicted by improvised explosive devices. The symptoms may appear soon or later depending on the level of harm inflicted. Developing methods to detect IEDs can prevent these injuries and deaths. The US military must treat mental health as important as physical health.

          Another major issue that needs to be addressed is rape. This is a criminal and health problem that plagues the US military. Women are afraid to report these cases for fear of being attacked again or having their careers terminated. This must stop for the sake of the soldiers that serve and the image of the institution. The US is already guilty of war crimes in numerous conflicts and there should not be an expansion of criminal activity. Even though there are more men in military and they also face sexual assault, women are dis proportionally victims. Unwanted sexual touching or bullying has become a common practice. The result of these attacks include mental and physical damage to the victim. The problem is that attacks are dealt with through a chain of command. Commanding officers either do not care or fear their careers will be in jeopardy. This must change, because commanders clearly do not see rape as a problem. Former Secretary of Defense Leon Penetta  formed a special victims unit and a 24 hour hotline for service members, but that has not been effective. A crime unit for sexual assault should be established in the military police and be reported there, instead of depending on commanding officers. From that process the offenders can be court-martialed  and then be tried in a civilian court as well to ensure enough punishment is given. This will require much structural change and work with advocacy groups. Women cannot wait for bureaucracy to make changes. A proactive method is for women recruits to learn self-defense before entering the service. Not only will you have to fight another army, you may have to fight people in your unit.


There should be no fear in retaliating against an attack from a colleague.  Learning new fighting skills and using them in a hostile environment is critical. The 2013 annual report revealed that 26,000 service members experienced sexual assault. Women composed 12,100 compared to 13,900 of men. Less than half of these attacks involved alcoholic beverages. This is not just a “female problem.” Anyone entering the US military could become a victim to a criminal in their ranks. The increasing numbers could be the result of people reporting sexual misconduct and violence. This should not be a shock, seeing as rape has been an unwritten policy of the US military. Everywhere the United States has invaded there have been cases in which US service members have directed sexual violence against the population. This culture of rape needs to be dismantled through law enforcement and severe punishment.

Southern Partnership Station 2014
Never be afraid to strike at someone who is attacking you.

These types of rapes are probably acquaintance rapes. This means the assailants are someone the victim knows. There is a common myth that criminals like these appear in dark alleys waiting for victims. That is not the case. Women are not “asking” to be attacked. What a woman wears or does will not deter a violent individual. That prevalent sexist fabrication has been used to make excuses for brutish behavior. Attitudes and policies must be revised to ensure a crime free environment. The prevalence of rape may explain why one and five women experience some form of mental illness after serving in the US military.

         It should be noted that certain concerns about the menstrual cycle and pregnancy are unfounded. There is a common myth that is held that the menstrual cycle will negatively effect women’s physical  performance. The claim that women lose half of their strength has no biological or physiological basis. Women may have feelings of being tired during different phases of the cycle, but it does not mean they become weak. When examining women weightlifters it explains that there are some changes. During the luteal phase and the follicular phase knee injuries increase. The solution would be to move training regimes for legs later in the week. The luteal phase causes an increase in appetite. The metabolic  rate increases to about 11%. PMS also occurs during this phase and could accompany lack of energy and endurance. The consumption of magnesium can assist with this problem and it is found in foods with high fiber. The body uses glycogen has an energy source. The body will spare the glycogen during the luteal. This is important due to the fact that using glycogen stores it can help burn fat faster. The luteal phase causes a woman’s body temperature to increase, pain tolerance lowers, and some studies have shown that their is a level of higher cardio vascular strain. During the follicular phase pain tolerance goes back up. This does not mean women cannot do strenuous tasks; it means they will experience more pain. This does not paralyze a woman. Soldiers are used to discomfort, so this is only minor. Women’s muscles will not weaken from the menstrual   cycle.

Physical strength is not lost during the menstrual cycle.
Women will have to deal with some physical discomfort that men do not have to.

  Pregnancy has to be discussed. There are regulations for women soldiers serving to ensure health in regards to fertility.  It is unreasonable to ask women to fight if they are pregnant.First a woman must let her commanding officer know she is pregnant. This will result in a counseling session discussing rescheduled work duties. If the pregnancy has no complications, women can continue to work. Women must seek medical care at a military facility. If a military facility is out of reach a civilian hospital can be used. Physical training will have to be modified. Pregnant soldiers can be exempted from training or chose to do modified training. This should be done only when a physician or doctor  is consulted. Women are exempt from taking the physical fitness test 180 days after pregnancy. Abortion policy is dated. It is only allowed at a military medical facility in cases of rape, incest, or if the mother’s life is in danger. If there is to be true gender equality in the US military, women should have the right to choose. Reproductive rights are critical to women being equal in society. The state has to right to control a woman’s body, especially the soldiers fighting for it. This could become another major health issue in the US military. The policy should be changed to prevent any further crisis. Having knowledge of the biological functions of a woman’s body can help develop specific training programs to counter arising injuries or health problems.

           These recommendations can make gender integration of the US military more effective. There could be potential failures or road blocks if they are not implemented. Mental and physical health issues will cause major financial issues for the Department of Veterans Affairs. As the US declines as an economic power, returning veterans will have very little benefits. They could face homelessness, unemployment, or be forced to resort to crime to support themselves. A revision in foreign policy can place the US in a better position. The United States was never meant to be an imperial power and should seek to avoid war. Nation building and interventions around the globe has caused serious destabilization. It also has put an unnecessary burden on the US military. While the foreign policy shift cannot happen overnight, improving the health of soldiers can.

 This would best be described as the integrative approach. That means mental and physical health maintenance will be part of the training. There also has to be an adjustment in mind set. Women need to have a paradigm shift when entering a combat position. They will have to learn to love physical activity and strength. There are women who reject strength training for fear of gaining muscle or looking “bulky.”This occupation will require some muscle. It is a necessity, when marching under load. Women struggle with this because they did not train themselves for it.   Women will also have to learn to have confidence in tasks that require physical skill. This will not be simple, because it requires deprogramming gender norm expectations. People assume woman means weak, but as it was seen with the Army Ranger School graduates it can be done. Commanders should have high expectations of their recruits regardless of sex. Having low expectations will only produce failure. This must be prevented when the first group of women trying out for front line infantry enter  this summer.  When examining problems with biology and physiology health issues among women in combat can be solved.

Further Reading

Scarborough, Rowan. “Army Colonel: Physical Strength Not the End-all, Be-all of Combat Service SIGN.” Washington Times. N.p., 12 Aug. 2013. Web. 4 Apr. 2016.

Giannangeli, Marco. “British Soldiers Suffer Injuries from Too-heavy Weights.” Express. N.p., 25 July 2010. Web. 4 Apr. 2016. <;.

Chidress, Sarah. “FRONTLINE.” PBS. PBS, 10 May 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2016. <;.

Byrant, Jordan. “Heavy Loads Could Burden Women’s Infantry Role.” N.p., 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2016. <;.

Ghose, Tia. “Women in Combat: Physical Differences May Mean Uphill Battle.” Live Science. N.p., 7 Dec. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2016. <;.

Bernton, Hal. “Weight of War: Gear That Protects Troops Also Injures Them.” The Seattle Times. N.p., 12 Feb. 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2016. <;.

Hoffman, Micheal. “Study Evaluates Soldier Load Weights.” N.p., 6 Aug. 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2016. <;.

Ehrlich, Robert. “Soldier’s Load and Combat Readiness.” Global Security. N.p., 6 Mar. 2009. Web. 21 Apr. 2016. <;.

Health Recommendations For Women Entering Combat

Muscle Worship

Muscle worship describes a fetish behavior in which an individual admires a more powerful person. This is not to be confused with mixed wrestling or session wrestling, but it could be involved.The major emphasis is on massaging, touching, or feeling the strength of the stronger person. Normally the one being worshiped is a bodybuilder, fitness competitor, or wrestler. Muscle worship can involve both men, women, and people of various sexual orientations. Bodybuilder both male and female offer muscle worship sessions. These types of sessions sometimes fund the cost of competing. It is still unknown how wide spread the practice is. There seems to be more information on women who participate in sessions than men. Although there is limited data, it appears there are more people willing to worship the muscularity of a woman. For the admirer the point is to get aroused by the bodybuilder’s greater strength. Some wonder if this practice is equivalent to prostitution. Not really, due to the fact that sex rarely happens in these sessions. That does not mean however it never happens. This practice is fascinating, because it demonstrates the nature of sexual behavior.

           When attempting to understand this practice  one must ask  what is the definition of sexual fetish. Sexual fetishism can be defined as ” the erotic feelings for an object, body part or activity.” Here the definition is applied to the muscles of a woman’s body in muscle worship sessions. The women being worshiped are not objects,so the first part of the definition would not be applicable. Males tend to make up the largest amount of fetishists in existence. That does not mean women do not exhibit fetishism as well.


 It still is a mystery why people have certain fetishes. They probably develop around the time of puberty or earlier. This is a period in which hormones do not only change the body, but change behavior. Teenage boys and girls start to have sexual interests. Sexual fetishes also focus on fantasies. This could involve some form of role play or other activity that causes arousal. Fetishes can exist on a spectrum. This means people could have some level of fetish attraction or high amounts. There is a level of sigma to the term, due to the fact people associate it with perversion or sexual predator activity. The more extreme ones are considered pathological. The truth is a majority of sexual fetishes are either harmless or to other observers comical. Sexual fetishes can involve a number activities such as high heels, toys (not the children’s type), or something more extreme like BDSM. To simplify the categories are vast. Some people have a particular type of body which they are attracted to. Muscular women would be an example. Sexual fetishism is not considered a mental disorder, but some behaviors are. Bestiality, pedophilia, and exhibitionism are severe mental disorders and criminal acts. Other fetishes are obviously not like those cases.

Liking muscular women would not be considered a mental disorder, just a preference.

 The foot fetish for example does not attempt to induce harm to anyone. The distinction is made when a fetish falls under what is known as paraphilias. What this means is that individuals will engage in abnormal and extreme activities to attain sexual arousal. This condition becomes so obsessive individuals can hardly function. Paraphilia occurs more in men than it does women.Theories have been postulated, but still there is not definite answer. The basic definition of sexual fetish and the nature of it was developed out of studies in psychology, biology, and sexology.

        Muscle worship overlaps with other activities and fetishes. Session wrestling and mixed wrestling are different, but are related to muscle worship. They are part of a muscle worship session, but not its main feature. The participant wants to feel the woman’s muscles and admire them, rather than test their strength. Stenolagnia  is a fetish that puts emphasis on the presentation of muscular strength. The type of muscle worship session that caters to the stenolagnic, buts emphasis on presentation, rather than strength demonstration. This would mean the client would do oil rubs and massage the woman’s muscle. Clients with cartolagnia  put more emphasis on strength feats.

This man prefers stenolagnia.
He prefers cartolagnia.

    These strength feats involved arm wrestling, wrestling. or another fetish referred to as lift and carry. Lift and carry is another fetish that is separate from muscle worship, but also overlaps. This fetish arouses individuals who like to be lifted over the shoulder or used as a human dumbbell. Being cradled  as well is favorable. This fetish does not always require a muscular woman to do it. To a person who enjoys this any woman capable who can pick them up is preferred. It just happens that a physically fit woman is more capable. Other times some women are naturally strong. Smaller women have been seen to perform such lifts of men who are bigger than they are. There are some methods to lifting a person larger than another and it may not just be completely based on strength.

arm wrestling is the most basic. The stronger woman challenges the man in a simple contest. The client is not trying to win per se, but to feel the force of the woman’s arm and grip strength. Most of the time the client would be physically weaker than the one being worshiped, so even if maximum effort was given it would be futile. There are of course men who don’t fit the image of typical muscle worshiper. Male bodybuilders themselves do seek out women of immense strength. Many times they are most frequent participants. This really is not a surprise considering they are around and active in the bodybuilding subculture. Men from different ethnic backgrounds and classes engage in muscle worship. The age range could be from 24 to 65 for males who find this practice gratifying. The exact number of men who do this is not known. There is even less data on women who seek men for muscle worship. There are scholars who have attempted to pinpoint just how popular sexual fetishes are. Around 2004 a research team led by Claudia Scorolli  at the University of Bologna  examine hundreds of online fetish sites and published their findings. The most popular fetish were related to feet and toes. Body type or size was third most popular according to the study. Muscle worship would fall under body type. Looking at these overlaps are confusing for the layman and professional alike. What it reveals is that human sexuality and behavior is not as simple as previously thought. When examining the practice of muscle worship fantasy wrestling cannot be ignored. This can fall under session wrestling or mixed wrestling. The difference is the challenger does not attempt to win. The client wants to feel the power of every wrestling hold. This involves headscissors, bodyscissors, and camel clutches.


12d71b9c30780582613c719bdace41be   Mixed wrestling 14   It is assumed that these practices are solely for the enjoyment of the person being dominated. The stronger woman may also enjoy overpowering a weaker subject. The female perspective seems to be ignored. Scholarship focuses on male motive, which may be evidence of certain sexist beliefs. It was believed that women had no sexual desire and were passive in passion. Only with the advance of sexology and the sexual revolution did this notion disappear. Power whether it is physical or mental is an attractive attribute to men and women. Relevant to muscle worship, this type of physical power can be irresistible.

        There are some possible reasons for why men tend to have more sexual fetishes. It could be rooted in evolution. Nature allows for different reproductive strategies.Species must survive in an environment and spread their genes by having off spring. The desire to spread genes results in different reproductive strategies. One model is the theory of male competition for females or multiple partner mating in the animal kingdom. The clues come from examination of gibbons and gorillas. Gibbons tend to be more promiscuous as a mating strategy and the sexual dimorphism in terms of size is small. Gorillas compete for access to females and are physically larger. The reason for the difference is that the males will fight. Human beings share a common genetic ancestor with apes and it is not impossible that millions of years of biological evolution still effects behavior. Paleo- anthropologists have speculated that mating  behavior of early hominins could have functioned in a similar pattern. Certain looks or attributes could be signals to potential mates of reproductive fitness. Subconsciously, the mates in the animal kingdom search for these attributes in mates. Mammals do not spend most of their time copulating. This only happens when females of a certain species are in estrus. This stage means females are ovulating and eggs can be fertilized. The human sexual cycle does not have a specific sexual receptivity  phase. It can be described to be more constant. Applying this to sexual attraction allows for a more lucid explanation. Men and women who like a particular body type could want to exchange genes with a partner  to increase the chances of better equipped offspring. This is only part of the answer. Biology does not only play a role, but sociological elements as well.

        There may be a sociological explanation into the desire and love of muscle worship. The consumption of images in popular media is powerful. There has been in recent decades an image of the strong woman presented in entertainment. Female heroines are being embraced in TV, film, and electronic media. There is a new Super Girl show and a Wonder Woman movie in development.Strength is not seen as a negative attribute in women. The rebooted version of Mad Max  featured the female protagonist more than Max himself. Even cartoons are presenting women as more than just stock characters. The Legend of Korra  did this excellently. All these images have not only an impact on adults, but most importantly children. It may change their perspectives as they reach adulthood. Being surrounded by such images could foster a love of the strong or muscular woman. Many participants who engaged in muscle worship say there was something that sparked their love of it. They either saw a magazine, read a comic, or saw on TV a muscular woman.

This is Wonder Woman from a DC comic. Normally she is drawn to be athletic looking.

   There may be some novel fascination at first, but this could develop into attraction. It may not always develop into a big attraction, rather a small amusement. For some when this spark is ignited they begin to crave more. While popular media provides occasionally a few powerful strong women in its content, sports has more in comparison. Women are presenting much more powerful bodies in sports than in the past. The bodies of track and field athletes, weightlifters, and bodybuilders delight the lovers of female muscle. To them it is their fictionalized heroines in popular culture coming to life. Although society seems to be not entirely accepting of a physically strong woman, there is a portion that is embracing it.


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The “strong is the new skinny” zietgeist  has gained traction. Now women are involved in crossfit  and other strength sports. Although this could be just another passing fad, it has gradually changed some peoples mind about what is attractive. There are a portion of people who find a woman with some muscle ( although not to the degree of a female bodybuilder) attractive. Some newcomers to the world of fitness are just discovering this for the first time. Other who have been involved in the fitness subculture were already ahead of the mainstream. The humorous aspect of this is that some women who are involved in fitness  recently think of it as something new. Kacy Catanzaro  of Ninja Warrior fame stated “men are definitely noticing strong women.” She explains further “I’ve never had issue with a guy dating  who was intimidated because   of my strength.” Anyone familiar with bodybuilding culture knows that women in the sport have die hard fans. Schomes which is sometimes used as a pejorative, but not always describes the most loyal of the fandom. It is not entirely clear how it emerged, but most are men who just love the look of the physically strong woman. Since the late 1970s there are schmoes who have sought muscle worship and session wrestling. Men all of sudden did not discover the beauty of female muscle. The idea was subcultural and underground in small fitness circles. It is now being repackaged in a mainstream format to a wider audience. However, elements of this muscle movement for lack of a better term, still remain subcultural. Female bodybuilding has never gained mainstream acceptance, because of negative stereotypes and prejudice. The sport of bodybuilding  was never really meant to be mainstream . The extremely muscular woman is then marginalized. If a woman has an “acceptable” amount of muscle then there is no ostracism. This will gradually be discarded , because women coming in sports are not longer bound by societal expectations of femininity in competition.


7b550376097cde34_452485578.xxxlarge_2x   Women have learned to define femininity for themselves. The major change is that it can be compatible with strength. Muscle worship from this sociological perspective can emerge from material culture. The consumption of media and have strong women present could make it possible. Biology does play a role in sexual attraction, but environment is also critical.

         There has been focus on the clients who participate in muscle worship, but limited focus on the women who are being worshiped.Their thoughts and motivations are  just as important to understanding muscle worship. The first seems to be a common explanation of financial incentive. The sport of female bodybuilding and other strength sports do not pay the women well. It is not just female bodybuilders who do muscle worship, but fitness and physique competitors as well. Those two divisions have grown more in terms of popularity, but are still underfunded. Muscle worship covers some of the cost of competing for athletes. The women basically have to become their own business and navigate a sports world generally hostile to them. This does not explain why some women also choose to do muscle worship for other reasons. There are women who enjoy the feeling of power and being in control. The woman in the case of muscle worship due to her immense strength is able to assert physical dominance.This is something women will rarely experience in their life times. At this stage there is a state of intense jubilation that women experience. While many observe that the muscle worshiper is there for a sexual thrill, it may go beyond  that instinct. The client wants to show respect and reverence for the woman’s power. Often the term goddess is used to describe the women. This means the one admiring submits psychologically to their power. The woman being worshiped could also like the attention. Rarely do women involved in bodybuilding get this much adoration and respect. They do not even get it inside their own fitness circles.



This is a private space in which men and women can explore areas outside traditional gender roles. Women can be physically powerful, but not seen as undesirable. Men can still be seen as  normal for liking this type of woman. Women who do muscle worship could also experience sexual thrill from the activity. Women do have a sexuality and for a longtime society sought to suppress it. Women are often viewed as passive receptors in terms of sexual behavior. This is not true, because they have erotic thoughts and urges just like men. Men’s drive may appear to be higher due to cultural mores and endocrinology. Testosterone has been known to be pivotal for both men and women in sexual function. Men produce higher amounts, which does influence sexual behavior. Other women who do muscle worship may just like the idea they can challenge men physically. Muscle worship can involve mixed wrestling, arm wrestling, lift and carry or other forms of physical activity.




Being dedicated athletes the idea of a new experience and challenge is a thrill. Co-ed sports competition  or play is rare due to differences in physiology. This provides an opportunity for women to experience it, at least in wrestling. Here anatomical and physiological differences are not effecting anything, due to the fact most men who participate are not athletes themselves. Women would have the greater physical advantage. The objective is not to win in a fantasy wrestling match, but to experience the strong woman’s full power.This can be gratifying to women who do muscle worship. The only way this practice and be fully understood is when there is complete examination of the women who do it.

           There is a habit to confuse muscle worship with femdom. This refers to a type of  bondage, dominance, submission, and sadomasochism (BDSM).While there could be an element of female dominance in muscle worship it is not exactly  the same. Bondage involves chains, whips, or physical restraints. It is rare that women use these items for muscle worship. Submission requires another to bow to the other’s power. This could be part of muscle worship, but not always. When wrestling is offered in a muscle worship session it can be competitive or semi-competitive. The only element that comes close is fantasy wrestling. Sadomasochism is also different. The goal of that practice is to gain pleasure out of pain or humiliation. A client who is in a muscle worship session may not be seeking harm. Some sessions do not involve wrestling at all, but allows the client to simply rub and oil the woman’s muscle. The point of wrestling the woman is not to inflict maximum damage, but see her total force of her physical strength. Clients are allowed to tap out if it gets too intense and the women are mindful not to harm them. The sadomasochist wants to have pain inflicted as the ultimate objective. Although strange to some observers, sadomasochism is not considered a clinical paraphilia. More extreme cases would fall under sexual sadism disorder. There are times when the lines and denotations are ambiguous when explaining muscle worship and female dominance.

         The root of this muscle worship fetish is due to the fact that the muscular woman is fascinating to supporters. They combined beauty and strength, which was thought to be incompatible. They are a unique group of women, because women this strong are not common. This aesthetic even though criticized  does accentuate the traditional beauty  mark areas of a woman’s body ( legs and posterior). Women who are involved in the sport do say  they feel better about their appearance and feel more desirable.


09df0eb1558955dc7cbc2b5f2c2d5254    Then the fitness industry does encourage a level of fetish. Many advertisements, magazines, and other entertainment use sex as way to sell products. When looking at photographs in magazines or websites its would be hard not to develop a love a  fetish. Fans are not solely driven by a fetish, but a love a particular sport. They were either introduced to it by friends, a media outlet, or some other way. What started as a simple fascination develops further. The fan does become interested in a particular athlete and if she offers muscle worship they may participate. This is not a disorder unless it stops a person from functioning. The individual will not stop liking different types of women.Clients normally have an eclectic mix of attributes they consider attractive in a woman. What muscle worship reveals is that human desire can be induced by a multitude of factors.

         Muscle worship is still a mystery. While there are some speculative reasons for its origins and practice, there is no concrete proof. Other fetishes seem to be more prevalent like foot fetishes, leather, or BDSM. There are fetishes that are disorders and would be considered clinical paraphilias. The reason there is a level of stigma is due to ignorance and myths that are repeated. Nor all fetishes are harmful or evidence of a mental disorder . Muscle worship is not considered a parahilia  or referenced in the DSM. It is difficult to get an exact number of participants globally, but it does have a far reach. Both men and women from Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania have done this. The academic fields of  psychology and  psychiatry are attempting to understand human sexual practice. They are behind in a sense, because study has not been done seriously up until recently. People are still uncomfortable discussing sexual behavior. Many parents refuse to let there children learn about sex education in school. Human sexuality is something that should not be feared. It is a part of biology and examining it can help comprehend human function and behavior.

Further Reading

Abrahams, Marc. “Sexual Fetish Research Shows There Are Few Limits to Erotic Desire.” The Guardian. N.p., 14 July 2015. Web. 4 Apr. 2015. <;.

Weiss LCSW, R. (2012). What’s In A Fetish? Maybe Not What You Think. Psych Central. Retrieved on April 7, 2016, from

Muscle Worship