One Punch Man has become a popular anime with a wide following. The story revolves around Saitima a powerful superhero who can destroy any foe with one punch. Being able to do this causes him much frustration due to the lack of challenge. Along with Genos and the Hero Association they battle numerous monsters and super villains. The manga and anime are a parody of both the superhero and shonen genres. The what makes this anime so enjoyable is its comedy, action, and fascinating characters. Yet, there is one character that is notable for multiple reasons. Captain Mizuki went viral in 2018, when fans became responsive to the new character. What is different about her is that she displays a muscular and strong looking physique. Although not as strong as our main character, she has much battle prowess. The appearance of Captain Mizuki demonstrates that female characters are not always fan service or a stereotypical representation. The image of the physically strong woman has a global presence and it appears in various mediums. Comics and manga seems to be ahead in showing such an image. This character also reveals that the elements of the female muscle fandom have entered the mainstream. The female athlete may be gradually becoming a new archetype in popular culture.
Captain Mizuki like other heroes has a back story. She is an athlete that wants to use her physical prowess in the fight against monsters and crime. She can be effective in battle thinking of fighting as athletic competition. Mizuki as far as it is known is a top performing athlete having at least three medals around her neck. The character obviously is modeled after tack and field athletes. It may even be closer to a crossfit athlete. Mizuki’s powers include superhuman physical prowess and weapon transformation. Mizuki is a class B hero with a rank of 71. Seeing as she has been recruited by the Hero Association to be part of the strike team during the human monster story arc, she does not compete as an athlete full time. Part of the comedy of this character is that she thinks of her hero work as an athletic competition. Her fights involve her using javelins, shot-put, and hammer throws. Her personality seems easy going and cheerful despite the mortal danger she faces.
So far, that is all that is known about this character. She may be a bigger mystery than how Saitima got his incredible strength. At some point this character will appear in the animated adaptation of the manga. She may just be a minor character as the series progresses or grow to have a more prominent role. Seeing as she’s becoming such a popular character with fan art being produced on various websites. Hopefully, this character can have more appearances and development as the series progresses. One Punch Man has many stories to tell, so the possibilities are endless.
It is no secret that there are men who like muscular women and its seems to be infiltrating popular entertainment mediums. Comics, cartoons, and manga were ahead in presenting the muscular female image. However, this did not make these art forms immune from stereotypes or sexism. The brawn hilda was the sexist stereotype and trope that either presented strong women as ugly or unfeminine. There is another alternative to this that is more positive in media representation. The amazonian beauty is a trope that is becoming more common at least in animated and comics related works. The image of the physically strong woman is not demonized rather vindicated. A cultural shift has occurred where at least there is some acceptance of a woman that is skilled physically and presents strength. Women have since the late 20th century gotten more involved in professional sports with women from all over the world competing at the Olympics. It is rumored that Captain Mizuki’s character design was based off of Michelle Jenneke.
The standard was to make women character designs similar to that of runway models. Mizuki ‘s body has defined muscle on it. There has been serious discussion about the importance of body diversity in animation or cartooning mediums. The mold has been broken with artists attempting to try something different. The idea is to present a wide range so that children do not get distorted ideas about how they should look. It is not guarantee it will prevent body image issues, but there is no reason to constantly push body image conformity. From an artistic perspective, it is critical to make your character designs unique. Using different styles and designs shows that an animator has grown as an artist. Besides looks, it is important to develop characters personality. A good female character has a personality and is not there just be to a token. Although it is early, Mizuki seems like a brave and yet carefree person. If the proper approaches are used, animators and cartoonists can create quality female characters.
Unknown to the mainstream, there is an entire underground community to female muscle art. This could range from female muscle growth, illustration, or fan art. The culture sometimes likes to collect materials that show muscular women in mainstream publications or entertainment mediums. Mizuki’s fighting moves give an indication that the author is into female muscle fandom and art. One move she does to one of the monsters is killing them with the force of her bodyscissors. Female muscle fans can easily see that the artist enjoyed this very much.
Many female muscle fans enjoy the idea of women with strong legs using them against their enemies.The bodyscissor and headscissor fall under a sub-genre of the female muscle fetish. Female muscle fandom is very large and expands into various media. Often the artistic element is forgotten. Websites, forums, and social media become spaces in which female muscle art can be seen and shared. Captain Mizuki going viral does not seem like such a shock to anyone familiar with female muscle fandom. Characters in female muscle art could be either one shot or consistently appear in webcomics. The female muscle growth genre normally shows a woman who is average or weak in terms of strength gaining superhuman power by means of magic or science.
Female muscle artists will create original characters or produce fan art. Female characters who are not muscular in appearance in their appearance on a show are given that image. Although it is art for the mere sake of it there also is another aspect. There is an erotic nature to it. Such an element is connected to stenolagnia and cratolagnia. These fetishes have to do with displays of muscle and strength. The strong female could be lifting trucks, battling against a foe, or wrestling men Art styles cater to certain tastes. Women can be realistically depicted or exaggerated beyond belief. Seeing as the internet reaches millions of people internationally it is easy to see why something subcultural would get more mass exposure. What started with television exposing the female athlete to wider audiences spread into popular culture. Captain Mizuki’s introduction to the manga is a much welcomed change in the way female characters are done. Hopefully One Punch Man‘s anime will continue with a third season at some point and reach Mizuki’s appearance. A black and white comic has an aesthetic appeal, but nothing beats the lively rush of colorful animation. Until then, you’ll just have to admire Mizuki’s muscles in black and white.
It is common knowledge that exercise is beneficial to your health. The question is what type of exercise is the best. The suggestion has been to do either weight training or aerobic exercise. Livestrong has made the recommendation of increasing the amount of weight training in a person’s exercise regimen. The idea of weightlifting produces images of hyper macho men and Schwarzenegger types. The truth is fitness and bodybuilding can be for everyone. Women, the elderly, and children can benefit from exercise. According to Alison Stellner ” gaining muscle mass offers plenty of benefits for everyone.” Women may have second thoughts based on the fear of “looking too big.” Bodies come in different shapes and sizes. Fortunately some women are challenging body image conformity. There are more benefits that women can gain from adding muscle to their frame. The idea that muscles are masculine must be discarded. Considering that both men and women have a muscular system, saying muscles are for men is biologically inaccurate. The health benefits of building muscle mass include weight control, increased strength, and reduced risk of injury. There are also miscellaneous benefits that are rarely discussed. There is also an opposing view that is articulated by Victoria Weinblatt. The way in which a person gains weight from weigh training may cause some challenges. There is the possibility of stress fractures, which women may be more vulnerable to. Muscle pain can occur as the body adjusts to a new exercise regimen. A recently new phenomenon related to body image has emerged from fitness culture known as muscle dysmorphia. These are a few disadvantages related to being devoted to building muscle mass. While these are concerns, it seems that there are more benefits rather than disadvantages.
Weight control is important to health. Poor diets and lack of exercise has made obesity a public health concern. Some people may not be obese, rather overweight. The health issue it creates can become numerous. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes become a threat to human health. Knee and joint issue can occur due to more weight that the skeleton cannot accommodate. Changing diet to fat and sugar free can aid in weight loss. Exercise combined with this is effective. However, weightlifting seems to be more efficient in reduction of excess weight compared to cardiovascular exercise. Muscles have the ability to burn calories. The more muscle that a person builds the more efficient they become at burning calories.
Allison Stellner states ” the more you tone your muscles the easier it is to maintain weight.” The problem with this statement is that there is no such thing as toning. Women if they are engaged in a weightlifting program can experience muscular hypertrophy. The term tone is used for women to reduce their fears about becoming muscular. There seems to be a bias against women who demonstrate or appear to be physically strong. Muscle and weightlifting does not turn women ugly, which seems to be a persistent myth. It is unhealthy to be too thin, which some encourage as a beauty standard. Weight loss is directed at women by a section of the fitness industry, but there should be a different approach. Weight gain should be the goal. Not in the context of more fat, rather lean body mass. Doing so can prevent chronic illness. Childhood obesity has increased because fewer children are playing outside or getting the physical activity they need. This could effect girls worse and with the hormonal changes during puberty body composition will be altered. Women will find it more difficult to lose weight due to sex hormones. It is important for men, women, and children to get active and be knowledgeable about their diet.
Through weight training strength can be increased. Building musculoskeletal mass can maintain health throughout life. The human body changes over the span of life. People around age 50 can lose about 10% of their muscle mass according to findings by the American College of Sports Medicine. From sixties to seventies muscle strength dissipates an estimated 15 % per decade. Following this part of life muscle mass goes down even further to 30%. This becomes a concern to women who on average live longer, which increases the chances of more health conditions later in life. Women seeing as they have less bone and muscle mass should be active to avoid osteoporosis or sarcopenia. The good news is that it is never too late to start an exercise regimen. Seniors can increase their strength by engaging in resistance training.
It would be detrimental to say to senior to stop doing too much as they age. One main reason for age related decline is when a person stops doing an activity they love to do. Learning new things or doing a something different can help improve mental well being. Better physical health enable seniors to remain independent. This should be the goal rather than proposing elders be sent to nursing homes or assisted living. There are indications that enough exercise can keep the circulatory system healthy. Knowing this it may be the best prevention against cognitive decline associated with age. The exact causes of dementia are unknown, but it may have to do with poor cerebrovascular health. Resistance training is not too much for seniors as long as it is done with proper instruction from a knowledgeable personal trainer. Independence can be gained for younger women with added strength. Some activities ranging from carrying groceries, moving objects, or doing chores that require brawn free women of the need for male assistance. Another practical and safety related benefit also can aid women. Having some strength can aid in self-defense if attacked. While learning proper martial arts techniques can also ensure security learning physical competence is important. The mindset should not be to find a man for the sake of personal protection, rather be strong enough to ensure your own safety. This flawed concept of needing a male protector actually ensures abuse seeing as it is statistically shown that a woman will most likely get abused by her intimate partner. Women through proper training can gain muscle, but amount varies depending on genetics, response to exercise stimuli, and somatotype.
As people age, joints become vulnerable. Losing balance and falling become particularly hazardous when it happens to seniors. Fractures or broken hips can be fatal. If such injuries are healed, many elders lose their independence and become reliant on family for care. Joints by definition are two or more bones meet in the human body. Joints can be classified as pivot, hinge, ellipsoidal, ball and socket. Cartilage reduces friction among the joints. The bursus also prevents friction. The synovial membrane has the responsibility of sealing certain joints into a capsule. Tendons attach muscle to the bones, while ligaments connect bones to other bones.
Women are more flexible compared to men. This is also partially age related. Younger women tend to have higher flexibility. Between the age of 14 and 30, women produce higher amounts of relaxin hormone. This softens ligaments and tendons. This is required for a reproductive function of the changes induced in the body during gestation. This flexibility allows the female body to prepare for the physically demanding task of carrying the baby and giving birth . As the body ages joints stiffen. This can happen from overuse. Joint damage can sometimes result in bone spurs,which can stop mobility. Muscle can help support the joints as Stellner claims. It is a myth that muscle makes a person less flexible. Muscle building can benefit joints and bones. For athletes, it a great method of injury prevention which could be career ending.
There are miscellaneous benefits that can come from building muscle mass. Improvement of self -esteem seems to be a psychological benefit that most women benefit from. Getting physically stronger give women more confidence that extends beyond just exercise. Women apply this new found competitive spirit to other areas of their lives. There are indications that exercise may improve mood due to possible increase in endorphins. If more studies are conducted exercise may be a means to treat depression or anxiety. Mental health is just as important as physical health. Yet, it has only been recently that the medical establishment has become serious about effective treatment. Having a hobby or a fun activity can be useful in preserving a person’s well being. Weight training or any other form of physical activity can be such a hobby. One does not have to train like a professional athlete to get health benefits.
Depending on what your goals are, an exercise regimen could produce a multitude of results. Women attempting to gain shape to their bodies or lose weight have an effective means by weight training. Running on a treadmill is not as effective although it still can burn calories. Women building muscle are not losing their feminine form, rather they are attempting to exaggerate it. Female bodybuilder build the upper body to a high degree, which makes the waist look smaller. Simultaneously, lower body development is emphasized on the legs and posterior. The concepts of toned versus bulky do not have scientific validity. Women can experience muscular hypertrophy as a response to training. Women should not fear having muscle or looking strong. Thankfully, women are realizing that gaining muscle and strength is positive thing for their health. There are some opposing views on this topic.
Victoria Weinblatt explains that there can be disadvantages to gaining muscle. It should be understood certain myths surround the function of the human body. If one stops lifting,muscles do not turn into fat. The only change will be that they will atrophy from lack of exercise stimuli. Another myth is that women cannot gain strength. How much muscle and strength a person gains depends on genetics,diet,somatotype, nervous system response, and endocrine function. Being female does not limit your potential. There are differences related to sexual dimorphism that must be taken into consideration when training.
Above is Dayana Cadeau when she was competing and a current photo in retirement. Women can build muscle and strength if they train for it.
Weinblatt does not repeat these myth that continually circulate in fitness literature. However, there are some statements that can be debatable. She lists the disadvantages as follows : weight gain, stress fractures, muscle pain, and reverse anorexia. What she means by reverse anorexia is muscle dysmorphia sometimes referred to colloquially as bigorexia. This disorder is psychological and can fall under the body dysmorphia classification. A relatively new psychological disorder there still needs to be more research to fully comprehend it. Some of the disadvantages could be avoided by simple safety measures and supervision by a coach or personal trainer. Before embarking on an exercise program, it is best to consult your doctor or primary care physician. Once your health condition is known and optimal then one should seek professional advice. It will be an experiment, because individuals can vary immensely from weight training. The disadvantages listed seem like mistakes novices can easily make without proper information.
Weight gain at the start may seem like a disadvantage. This only can be that way depending on the shift of body composition. Having excessive fat on the body can result in either being overweight or obese. Added muscle would not harm a person, but they would weigh more from when they started. Using a scale is not an accurate way of determining health nor is the body mass index. These methods can be misleading. BMI does not take into account muscular builds, which would classify them as obese according to the standard chart. A more precise method would be to measure body fat during the progression of the training program. A body fat tester is a simple method to document progress in fat reduction. Losing fat and building muscle may not be possible to do at the same time. A change in diet with exercise may burn fat, but building muscle requires more investment. Lifting with intensity, high calorie intake, supplementation, and adequate rest are essential to building a muscular physique.
Weinblatt makes the error of using the term “bulky.” She states “using lighter weights and doing more repetitions can minimize the bulking effect causing your weight gain or plateau.” When the term bulk is used it is a term refer to a high level of muscular development. Bulking another unscientific colloquial term refers to the process of building muscle mass. Muscular hypertrophy can occur with any level of weight, however there is a difference in total amount. Lighter weights with more repetitions allow for greater muscular endurance. Heavy weights with fewer repetitions allow for more muscular strength. Theoretically, it could be possible to gain muscular strength from lighter weights provided that it does enough microtrauma to the muscle tissue. The only problem with this is that it could take a longer time compared to just lifting heavy. Then there is another questionable claim : “when first starting your diet and strength-training program, your increase in muscle mass may outpace your loss of fat.” Somatotype may be a factor in this case. Ectomorphs will probably not see a significant gain in mass when weight training. Naturally thinner body types may struggle to make muscular gains. Endomorphs could see an increase in muscle,but it may not out pace their total body fat percentage. Exercise and nutrition are key to keeping excessive weight off or gaining muscle mass. The error is that people believe they can eat what ever they want as long as they exercise. The reality is that a balanced diet must be maintained to ensure a stable metabolism. Activity level must be high enough to ensure calories are burned from food consumption. When nutrition, exercise, and diet are taken into consideration a fitness program can be successful.
When doing weight training there is a risk of stress fractures. Women can be more susceptible to stress fractures who are highly active.This is not the result of gaining mass specifically. Weight lifting actually can build bone mass as well as muscle. Muscle itself does not cause stress fractures. More musculoskeletal mass would prevent trauma. What Victoria Weinblat is quoting from is the Nutrition and Health of Military Women Subcommittee on Body Composition. Building muscle mass does not happen quickly. The rate of gain depending on various factor may not even be a full pound in a month. Bodybuilders can take up to decades perfecting their physiques. For women in the military going through basic training and military occupational specialty stress fractures came from their lower levels of musculoskeletal mass. If physical fitness is low prior to entry, the body will not be able to sustain intense activities that require strength and speed. This is why women have higher injury rates compared to their male counterparts in the US Military. Training must be done prior to doing basic training to better prepare for MOS. Men who are more ectomorphic in terms of body type can suffer similar injuries just like their female counterparts. Building muscle mass can almost serve as a natural armor for heavy duty activities. Yet it should be approached with safety. A stress fracture occurs when a small crack can appear in bones. Overtime, lifting too heavy loads or weights can result in stress fractures.
For a novice or person who is out of shape workouts should not be so intense. Workout intensity should be increased gradually overtime. Lifting more weight than you are capable of can result in skeletal injury or a possible muscle tear. This is an incremental approach which can ensure safety and health. Staring off at high intensity will not induce higher amounts of muscular hypertrophy or reduce weight . While the symptoms of stress fractures can be detected, building muscle mass is not the contributor to them. Repetitive motion or strain can do this. Taking a rest period during the course of the week ensures proper recovery. Increasing bone density and muscle mass can aid in maintaining health. Stress fractures are not a disadvantage of muscle mass, rather a condition that can occur when having poor lifting form or doing to much for the muscle group being exercised.
The real downside to gaining muscle mass is pain. The muscle pain is part of recovery from training and fibers growing stronger from exercise stimuli. The pain from intense lifting regimens could last for days. When we feel pain, it is the nervous system communicating that there is a disturbance in a particular area of the body. If pain becomes so high then there could be an indication of damage to a ligament or tendon. Muscle strain are common among people active in strength sports. Muscle strain happens when the muscle is stretched or torn. The symptoms can be bruising, dislocation, swelling, sudden onset of severe pain, muscle spasms, stiffness, or a knotted up feeling in the location of damage.
Knowing symptoms is critical for separating pain from training or a serious injury. Some sore feeling means that the training is effective. Besides juts measuring weight, it indicates that incremental gains could be occurring. The best way of charting progress is to maintain a journal with lifting statistics and a record of your diet. Muscle pain seems to be a large disadvantage, which few can dispute. After sometime muscle pain may not be as bad when the body become acclimated to a new training regimen.
Reverse anorexia is mentioned as being a disadvantage. This is not the proper term for a psychological condition which can be generally be classified as body dysmorphic disorder. Muscle dysmorphia is a psychological disorder in which a person sees themselves as too small or weak and become fixated on building high degrees of muscle on the body. Sometimes this condition has been referred to as bigorexia. The interesting element about this psychological disorder is that men appear to have it more. While women can have body dysmorphia, it reveals that body image issues are not specific to one sex. This sudden male obsession with male body size can be related to changes in society. Images of physically strong men presented as the paradigm of attractiveness may be encouraging body image conformity. Masculine identity seems to also be in crisis with high unemployment, shifting gender roles, and difficulties establishing healthy relationships. Self-esteem or poor self-perception issues set some men off on an unhealthy path to attain an unrealistic body standard.
Women can have muscle dysmorphia , but men have it more. Women have other types of eating or body image disorders like anorexia.
Some men and women may turn to performance enhancing drugs to alter their body size. Using the term reverse anorexia does not fully describe what is occurring with such individuals. This is a relatively new phenomenon, however it does not mean people dedicated to weightlifting or sports have muscle dysmorphia. It seems that this is a product of a society obsessed with image, youth, and beauty. Frankly, muscle dysmorphia should not even be included in the Livestrong article, because that is more of a mental health condition. It is difficult to recognize, a disorder can be noted when it effects activities of daily living. Some have argued that muscle dysmorphia could be an eating disorder or a behavioral addiction. Debate still remains around classification.
When examining both disadvantages and positive results of building muscle, there is more benefits. The possible negative effects can only happen under certain conditions. Muscle dysmorphia is related to previous psychological distress prior to training. Before one starts training it should be understood that appearance will not make you happy. Exercise may be a way to manage certain problems, but it takes introspection to discover the root of personal challenges. A more positive and self-respecting outlook can be the best solution. Stress fractures can be avoided by doing exercises in the right form and safely. The injury risk is present during training. Yet it is not as high as contact sports such as tackle football. Many athletes risk concussions and ligament injuries depending on what sport they play. Weightlifting is more safe in comparison. For maintaining health there are multiple benefits weightlifting can bring. It can prevent osteoporosis, sarcopenia, or circulatory system diseases. Obesity and heart disease may become a major public health crisis if people are not physically active. Infectious diseases in the past were the major killers of human beings. Now chronic illness is related to limited physical activity and diets high in sugar as well as fat. Lifting weights and building mass can be effective prevention against obesity, heart disease, or diabetes.
The first ever women’s fitness club open in Kabul. Fitness culture has been growing around the world and it is no longer exclusive to men. This fitness club in Afghanistan shows that women are doing something to reassert the rights they lost under years of war and neocolonial conquest. The gym is owned by Tahmina Madidnuristani and she states that it was her lifelong ambition to run a business. Violence from the Taliban, Haqqani network, and multiple terrorist organizations make leisure activity difficult in Afghanistan. Sports facilities are limited and few women have access to them. This however is changing. Women’s lives are so restricted in remote areas they are forbidden to go to school or gain employment. The opening of a fitness club is a major women’s rights statement. The new fitness clubs that are emerging have grown in popularity and male disapproval has not stopped women from joining. For once, Afghanistan has at least some positive news.
It was in 1969 that humankind reached the moon. The Apollo 11 spacecraft carried astronauts Neil Armstrong, Micheal Collins, and Buzz Aldrin. The Apollo program was discontinued in 1972, with unmanned probes doing exploring. The space race between the Soviet Union and the United States had ended, but this did not mean more space exploration stopped. There has been discussion of a possible return to the moon in 2024. As the 20th century drew to a close many discoveries were making humanity change the way it thought about the universe. Kepler has stumbled upon planets out the Solar System that could be Earth like. If so, then it means that they are ripe for human colonization. What must be done first is to understand the long term effects of space on the human body and experiment with making a quality base. The only solution would be to return to the Moon. The University of Washington’s Women’s Sports Medicine blog wrote in 2013 about a major concern facing astronauts on the International Space Station. Living in microgravity environments can negatively impact musculoskeletal health. Looking for a solution the Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine collaborated with the National Space Biomedical Research Institute along the NASA Flight Opportunities Program. An experiment was conducted with parabolic flight. Subjects were exercising and being monitored for specific changes in the body. It should be noted that their may be some differences in how male and female bodies react to limited gravity environments. Although there are fewer women astronauts, the number is gradually increasing. The problem for NASA is that it has not adjusted to this change. One problem is that there may not be enough space suits fitted to women’s bodies. The first all female space walk was cancelled due to this problem. The parabolic flight simulation experiment only examined one aspect of space travel. Other factors are just as important in such a journey.
The parabolic flight experiment used nine subjects. The subjects would then do locomotor activities in the experiment. How changes were measured was by senors on the mid-lower back and around the ankle. The subjects were placed on a treadmill along with a load device ( to simulate loads on Earth). Two flight campaigns were conducted. There conditions were present in the experiment which subjects exercised in. These conditions were zero, lunar, and Martian gravity. The team remains in the process of taking data and using it to create software to recognize activity done in microgravity environments. What will then be extrapolated is an exercise monitoring system to monitor musculoskeletal health while in Outer Space. This may even have applications to treating osteoporosis in the biomedical fields.
The experiment seems to be sound in its methods. Yet some problems arise if examined critically. There were only nine subjects, which is not an enormous sample. This may distort the data in the final analysis. Having a large enough sample can at least reveal an average in terms of potential outcomes. It was not revealed exactly was the fitness level of all the subjects. Random selections tell what will happen to a person not trained to be an astronaut. The purpose to redesign fitness programs to accommodate such professionals. The reasoning is not unsound, but the point is to reach as much precision as possible. When applied to sexual dimorphism in terms of exercise physiology , women should be given more investigation. Male and female bodies may react differently during space travel.
Women’s bodies have lower levels of musculoskeletal mass and a body composition that retains more adipose tissue. What is already known tells us what could happen to women in space long periods of time. Women’s bodies may suffer more atrophy from a microgravity environment compared to a man. The reason being is the a man does have more muscle mass , so the rate would be slower in terms of loss. This explains why women have higher rates of osteoporosis. If the baseline of musculoskeletal mass is low age can gradually reduce it. Other diseases and conditions such as sarcopenia can happen to both sexes. Women have a higher risk factor due to differences in mass of the the muscular and skeletal system. The erroneous conclusion is that women’s bodies are not suited for space travel. Weight training would be essential part of women’s fitness regimen along with some running to be prepared to explore the Solar System and beyond .
Prior to entering a space mission men and women should be in good health. Part of this requires a standard of fitness and a consistent exercise regimen on Earth and in Outer Space. Sometimes sex would not be a factor in the rate of atrophy of bone and muscle mass. Ectomorphic body types may be more vulnerable in space. Once more this is the result of having less musculoskeletal mass to begin with. For endomorphic body types space travel would be rougher. There must also be a consideration for long term effects of microgravity on the circulatory system. The only way to get a hold of the settlement of space is to establish a colony on the moon. Astronauts would have to stay there for a period of time and document changes in their bodies. Differences related to sex must be accounted for if method of space travel and settlement is to be successful.
The moon is 384,400 km from Earth. The surface gravity is about 0.17 x Earth’s. One year on the Moon is the equivalent of 27.32 Earth days. The temperature can be a maximum 123 degrees Celsius and at minimal -233 degrees Celsius. One aspect about the Moon is that the same side faces Earth. What can be seen on the surface are dark plains known as maria. Thanks to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter thousands of images have been gathered giving more geographical details. The far side of the Moon was not fully seen until the space age. This area is populated with craters. Regolith a rubble substance covers the surface.
The near side of the Moon would probably be the best candidate for for settlement. Carters and regolith could make habitation difficult. The Moon has no atmosphere, making terraforming a more difficult engineering task. The South Pole of the Moon may have water ice. If so, there are two possibilities. There may be a source of water that can be purified and be used for human visitors or a place that contains life. What is known so far, it is too early to make a definite proclamation. The moon was formed 4.5 billion years ago. During the Apollo missions astronauts were able to retrieve 380 kilograms of rocks from the moon. The structure of the moon contains an iron core, a mantle, and a crust that has many craters. A positive sign is that the moon may not have seismic activity. A satellite with no possibility of plate tectonic disturbance would indicate a level of safety. Limited geological activity explains why craters still remain. These structures are the result of meteorite impacts eons ago.If water can be found in deep craters at the moons poles, building a moon station could be a technological possibility. This area get direct exposure to sunlight. There was signs of promise with the Chandrayaan-1, which indicated water might be on the moon due to the reflection of light on the lunar surface. The more that is known about the lunar surface and poles the better astronauts can tame the wilderness of space.
The fitness aspect of space travel must be taken into consideration, but their are also other heath hazards. Space contains much radiation. The magnetic poles on Earth shield organisms from it. If humankind does reach Mars the terrain there is more hostile. Sandstorms are a huge risk to any vessel entering the atmosphere. Food production becomes a real puzzle, if there is very little soil for farming. Water and sunlight are critical to plant growth. The question of transporting cattle or other livestock becomes complicated. Animals would have to survive the journey to ensure the success of farms. Establishing permanent settlement also poses a problem in terms health depending on age. Young children living in space or in a microgravity environment may not have their bones and muscles develop in a healthy manner. If their bodies are still growing a microgravity environment may complicate their development. The risk of birth defects could also be present in unknown regions of space. The elderly also in particular may struggle traveling in space.
Astronauts would have to explore the unknown, remain in contact with Earth, and safely return to show that it is possible. The trouble is financing such an immense project. The only solution would be that it would be a collaboration among various nations of the world. Combining funds and scientific minds around the world will make a human space exploration and settlement project progress at a faster rate. It must be agreed upon that space shall not be used as another theater of war . When a consensus is reached, only then can the project for human exploration and settlement begin. There is another risk to going into space or an unknown planet that can not be detected by the human eye. Microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses pose a health risk. There could be thousands of different types of bacteria and viruses on planets that human beings have no immunity to. A quarantine procedure must be put in place to prevent the spread of a lethal disease from space. The astronauts that went to the moon did not bring such microorganisms back, because the environment may not be able to sustain life without an atmosphere. Planets that are Earth like may have wildlife that could be potentially dangerous. Science fiction has imagine strange and terrifying creatures, but it may be fact on certain exoplanets.There is the element of fear about the unknown. However, there also is the element of excitement. Humanity has reached a critical point in which we are learning more about existence and ourselves.
The 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup will be significant for women’s sports history for a number of reasons. It was able to generate high ratings during TV broadcasts, which discredits the myth that viewers would never like watching female athletes. The number of women athletes getting international exposure has shown that women really have reached a level of prominence in professional sport. The US women’s soccer team beat the Netherlands to secure victory in the final. The next question is will they ever receive equal pay seeing as they have won so many matches. Despite persistent challenges for women in the sports world, there is a positive result. More young girls may be inspired to play soccer. To celebrate, here are some photos capturing an important Women’s World Cup.
Women entering primarily male occupations will face hostility and discrimination. Prejudice and false claims cloud rational judgement. Women entering military combat jobs has gradually become another wedge issue in American politics. The American right seems to disapprove of women in combat or break from traditional gender roles. The Republican Party may as the years go by struggle to gain more women voters if their is not a change in regards to women’s reproductive rights or that women are not given more leadership roles in the party itself. The American left regarding this issue may gloss over the realization that women may not enlist in large numbers or be as physically capable as a man of the same fitness level. What that means is that all branches of the US Military will not be gender balanced. Difficulties can be countered through new policies and strict enforcement . There are plenty of capable women who could make greater soldiers and slowly the US Military is realizing this . Women have been in combat throughout history, so this change since 2013 is nothing new. The Mino warriors, the Onna bugeisha, and Scythian warriors are just a few examples in history of female combatants. American history also has instances of female combatants. Women during the Civil War disguised themselves as men to fight. Even with this information, skeptics and opponents still object to women in combat. There are some myths that must be challenged to prevent hostility and sex prejudice in military ranks. Sex integration can be done in the US Military. Women’s rise to prominence really started in 1978 and their roles are going to expand in the coming decades.
The persistent argument is objecting to women in combat roles is that they are not physically fit enough. Leanne K. Simpsons uses the more harsh statement ” women are physically inferior to men.” While detractors or sexists do not make such a blatantly sexist statement, they make it clear they think all men are stronger than all women. No such woman would be qualified unless standards are lowered. The reality is that on average men are stronger, but that does not mean women cannot improve their physical fitness capacity. This would not result in women being as strong or as fast as men with a the same training regimen. However, women can acquire enough strength and speed to meet the demands of a certain military occupational specialty. Males have more muscle mass compared to women. Even the most muscular woman contains a higher body fat percentage compared to a man of similar training. Women need to be strong enough to carry a wounded soldier, march under load, and hold supplies as well as weapons.
Women can increase their strength through weight training. Women can build muscle mass, but not to the same level as a man. This is based around endocrinology and the influence of sex hormones. Prior to puberty, the physical fitness capacity of boys and girls is similar. When testosterone levels increase in a boy’s body they will a strength spurt. This means a dramatic increase in musculoskeletal mass. Tendon and ligaments also contribute to strength. Training does not enhance women’s ligament strength to the same degree. This explains why women are vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament tears . The reason female soldier may suffer more musculoskeletal injuries is due to the fact women have less body mass to handle intense pressure. Another reason is that women are not training properly for maximal strength gain. Modern technology has negated some requirements for physical strength. Most wars are not fought with bare fists, rather with tanks, airplanes, bombs, guns, and artillery. Nuclear weapons also complicate warfare and make it that much worse. Cyber warfare will become more prevalent in future conflicts. It seems technology and the more lethal the weapon matters more than how many points a soldier can score on a fitness examination. Fitness still is important. A combat soldier depending on their occupation or branch of service still needs to be fit and healthy enough to meet the rigorous demands of combat. Some assault rifles can weigh up to 8 pounds or more.
Women will require a weight training program and a nutritious diet to prevent health problems. Rather than calling the new standards gender neutral it should be occupational requirements. The problem using the term gender neutral is that it is too politically charged. Women in combat will be successful just as long standards are not lowered. This has not occurred so far, rather standards are being adjusted to meet new challenges in 21st century warfare.Another factor in physical fitness aerobic capacity. Some aspects of physiology will not be altered by training. Women’s running speed does is slower than a man’s due to differences in pelvic structure as well as the size of the heart and lungs. The hardest part of meeting physical requirements may be reaching the necessary mile runs in fitness examinations. Women would have to have some level of physical fitness training prior to entry. Doing so would dramatically reduce basic and MOS training injuries. It is a myth that women are physically inferior, but physical fitness capacity is not equal. The gap is much wider between the average man and average woman. If women were to be drafted it would require that get a fitness program to boost their strength. For both men and women, a weight management program may be required for them to be eligible. A large portion of the American population either is overweight or struggling with obesity. Other people devoid of weight related issues are just not physically active enough. As history has shown and the current women filling combat jobs it is clear that women are capable.
There is a gender stereotype that men are more aggressive, while women are more passive. One myth is that women lack the aggression required to be effective combat soldiers. The truth is both sexes can show aggression, but men seem to show physical aggression more. The reasons are both biological and sociological. Sexual dimorphism and aggression may be linked to sexual selection. Men evolved to be bigger and stronger in the competition for mates. Fighting for food and territory was probably the daily existence of early hominids. There is a reason that more men are present in armies even when combat positions are open to women. Occupations that have a high degree of risk women make up small numbers. Construction, law enforcement, and firefighting are other occupations that have low numbers of women. There remain social barriers, but it seems it comes down to personal choice. Men may just be hardwired to engage in dangerous behavior compared to women. Then there are physical challenges. All women may not have the strength and endurance to increase the numbers in such jobs. Sociologically, young boys are raised to be more aggressive. Girls are taught to adhere to a certain set of behavior that does not deviate from a traditional gender role norm. Aggression, competitiveness, or independence were qualities never encouraged in girls.
The reason men’s bodies evolved to be stronger was that they were built for physical confrontation. Women did not need to be physically aggressive to get a mate or territory . Yet, biology is changing and can be flexible. Men and women as shown above do not naturally look like this. Through exercise and diet the human body can be changed dramatically.
Women now in various countries are challenging traditional gender roles. Women are participating in sports thought to be for men only. When watching a boxing event or an mixed martial arts match women demonstrate physical aggression that is not typically seen. Although there is a power scale difference in terms of athletic performance, women’s skill level appears to be equally matched. It should be understood that just being strong does not make you the best fighter. How a person throws a punch or kicks makes a difference in a physical confrontation. This is why hand to hand combat training is provided by armies. If a soldier gets disarmed, they can easily fight back against an enemy combatant. If women are provided the same training, there will not be problems in terms of integration of female combat soldiers. One realization is that when women are being trained they are going to have to be deprogrammed from years of cultural conditioning. Environment does have a powerful role just like biology. Simply being in a violent and harsh environment makes a person more aggressive. Many believe human society does not love war, but it has occurred so often in history to be true. The ancient and modern empires were built on armed conflict. Today, low level wars of proxy may merge into mass global confrontation between world powers.
War requires coordinated acts of aggression to make a fighting force effective. Individuals not only have to increase their aggression and fighting level, armed units must as well. Beyond the dynamic of sex and biological behavior, there is an element that effects most in the US Military. It produces high quality soldiers, but there is not the production of warriors. The warrior culture believes in fighting to the death and completing a mission no matter the cost. The United States as a country has never really had a warrior culture like other nations around the world. Sparta, Japan, and Dahomey are examples of warrior cultures through out history. It may be time for the United States to readjust various military related policies. The first would be to stop viewing women as either victims or helpless beings in need of male protection and assistance. Women did show aggression and fighting skill in the historical past. Japan had the female warriors known as onna-bugeisha. Dahomey had the Mino warriors who would later fight French invasion.
Female fighters both past and present. The difference now is that women are fighting in an official capacity, which means they get medals and full honors as well as benefits of military service.
It appears that women can be aggressive, but for men it just may be more natural to their sociobiological behavior. That means it may continue to be more men fighting in armies, even though women are capable. Granted the numbers will be skewed due to the historical circumstances of favoring males over females, but even with reduction in discrimination the numbers may not dramatically increase. The disturbing aspect about this is that if aggression come so natural to large portions of people is peaceful coexistence an illusion? To a degree it is. The United States has embarked on an extremely aggressive path since the Cold War overthrowing governments and invading countries in the name of democracy. The notion that if there are more democratic societies in the world then there is more peace has shattered in the early 21st century. There are more liberal democracies (although authoritarian in function ), but various conflicts are still active around the world. Tension between the US, China, and Russia may escalate to a large global conflict. The only way to keep aggressive behavior in check is to have a sophisticated network of diplomatic relations that can effectively prevent a massive world confrontation. having more women leaders would not create this peaceful world as some would like to think. Women can be aggressive just like men but such behavior is both a product of biology and environment.
Biological sexism still persists relative to women’s mental capacities. The most laughable myth is that women lack the mental discipline required to handle the demands of combat. There are differences between male and female brains, but this does not indicate inferiority or superiority. The question of sex differences in neuroanatomy are irrelevant seeing as the brains of individuals differ regardless of sex. Women have been present in high stress jobs and have seem no difference in performance compared to their male counterparts. the anatomical structure of male and female brains is the same. There are two hemispheres left and right. The brain is made of neurons a collection of cells. The brain contains occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. The cerebral cortex is the site of complex mental actions such as thought and consciousness. Men’s brains do have higher volume in certain subcortical regions such as the hippocampus , amygdala, thalamus, and striatium according to a study conducted by the University of Edinburgh in association with the UK Biobank. Women’s brains had thicker cortices compared to men. Brain size or differences in our neurological wrining does not indicate biological superiority. This discussion about the brain and mind also relates to the question of mental health. Soldiers suffer from post traumatic stress disorder or take their own lives once returning to civilian life. Depression can harm both men and women, but for soldiers it becomes a more challenging battle. This is where men are at a disadvantage. The male suicide rate is higher than women not only because they select more violent means of killing themselves, but males are taught to not express their emotions. The stereotype of the hyper-emotional and unstable woman can be contrasted with the stoic man. Men are taught if they express emotion this is a sign of weakness. Women may be more socialized to be more open about their feelings. A new attitude and approach should be taken to mental health.
A soldier is trained to be tough and deal with difficult situations. Even the strongest people need help sometimes. That is why every soldier should have a good support structure both in and out of service. Connection with family and friends should be maintained for the sake of mental well being. The Department of Veterans Affairs needs to address the mental health crisis among service members. This requires more appropriations for suicide prevention and mental health programs. The strain of combat can make a person emotionally unstable. Men and women can fall victim to this, but men may be more vulnerable due to an extreme machismo upbringing. There needs to be a healthy expression of emotions to prevent mental distress. Most importantly the stigma of seeking help must be eliminated. Therapy can be a means of confronting mental health challenges. Addressing these problems will aid in getting soldiers readjusted to civilian life.
Sexual assault, harassment,and rape continue to be a persistent problem. Women are victimized at a higher rate given their small numbers. There are more men in the US military, which means that more men would be actually be victimized in terms of a statistical aggregate. The numbers will never be complete, because victims are fearful to report they were sexually attacked. The possibility of reprisal or deliberate destruction of a military career make many remain silent. There is a military culture that must change. It is ludicrous to say that rape of sex crimes are a “female problem.” Children can be molested or prisoners can be victims of custodial rape. Normally, the justification of keeping women out of combat is that they will be raped or tortured by the enemy. The lugubrious reality is that a woman can be attacked by her male colleagues. The US Military has engaged in multiple war crimes in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, and Somalia. While it is know that the murder of civilian populations is common from airstrikes and the use of drones it is often forgotten soldiers use rape as a weapon of war. It is time for the United States to full respect the Geneva Convention and prosecute criminal activity. If the US Military cannot reduce sex crimes in their institution, then may be a solution would be to have such cases tried in a civilian court. Officers and generals of high rank can influence outcomes in military tribunals. It is difficult for a soldier who has been sexually assaulted by a service member of higher rank to get the perpetrator charged. The problem is not women in combat; it is a network of institutional corruption. When that is dismantled, then the levels of sexual assault decline.
Unit cohesion has been a question since the ban on women in combat jobs was lifted in 2013. Cohesion depends on several factors. Collaboration between soldiers is pivotal. If men in the unit are hostile to their female counterparts, with will only result in failure. Leadership has a greater impact than how many women are in an armed unit. If a commander has poor decision making skills or lacks the imaginative thought to navigate difficult situations a unit will not be an effective fighting force. All soldiers must be willing to do the same tasks and duties. That means women should not be expected to do less, while men do more. The reason why standards should not be lowered to increase the numbers of women is that men would have to do more of the labor. This place unnecessary stain on male soldiers who would have to perform more of the physical labor. If women are trained on the same physical fitness standard, then there would be no problem with unit cohesion. Male soldiers must learn to tolerate and accept women as part of their units. This may never happen no matter how qualified women are, but strong human resources policies can combat discrimination or hostile atmospheres. There also is the problem of romantic relations between soldiers.
There has to be a strict dating policy to avoid issues related to human resources or the drama of being involved with a coworker. Such intimate relations could effect cohesion in an armed unit. Currently all branches do have a dating policy. These policies are directed at officers of higher rank and their subordinates. An updated fraternization policy would be required to maintain a level of cohesion. Unfortunately, even with such policies in place it is difficult to control human behavior and actions. Mixed units may struggle at first, but overtime it can be made to work. Women full integration may take a number of decades to complete.
What seems to frame the perspective of women in combat is based on the idea women cannot fight or that they are low quality soldiers. The notion that female units do not work seems to ignore history. Women fought in combat when Eritrea was fighting for independence from Ethiopia. During the ancient period, women were also active as fighters in Scythia. These women of the Central Asian Steppe may have been an inspiration for the Greek myths surrounding Amazons. During World War II Russian women served as snipers and fighter pilots. Detractors claim that this was all in the past and at best random anomalies. Certainly the female warrior is nothing new appearing in both history and popular culture. Even recent history demonstrates that women are playing combat roles in major conflicts. Women have been active in the YPG fighting ISIS in Syria. What started as a civil war expanded in a war of proxy between the Gulf states and Iran. It attracted both the US and Russia which continue to fuel the conflict. The YPG known as the Women’s Protection Unit has both protected Rojava and prevented ISIS from expanding further. Erroneously, the Trump administration declared that ISIS was defeated, but that is far from the truth. The Peshmerga, the Syrian Army, and the YPG have been containing or taking the territory that they have gained.
There has been a dramatic shift with women become recognized combat soldiers. Changes will have social and political impacts. The idea of the woman warrior has been present in history. It only has been recently that modern historiography has examined the role of both individual women fighters and leaders. When the Roman Empire fought the Scottish tribes they confronted the Picti. These were warriors who were both male and female who were known for their body decorations. There may be more to discover about women’s military history in the ancient past. What this information indicates both past and present is that women can be made into combat soldiers. If given a fair chance they can excel. Bravery and determination are valued in fighters. Women can have these qualities. To say that all women are not capable at being soldiers ignores the facts of history and the current geopolitical situation.
The pronouncement that is debatable is that women cannot perform as well as men on special forces units. Special forces training can be very physically demanding. It should be understood that many recruits give up seeing as Special Forces tests endurance, strength, speed, and mental strength. Men and women do not have the same physical fitness capacity. This means if both sexes were given the same training regimen it most likely would result in the male subject with more strength an speed. Regardless of sex, somatotype, genetics, diet, and type of exercise regimen used can determine the level of physical fitness capacity. Based on the current standards, a prediction can be made about how many women could be on special forces such as the Navy SEALS. The fitness standards for a minimal qualification could give the average woman trouble. The biggest struggle would be upper body based exercises an area which women lack the most muscle. The minimum standards would be impossible for an average woman to do with out training before hand. For a female athlete it may pose only some minor exertion.
Reaching the optimum standards for the female athlete or a woman of a high fitness level would be more of a challenge. The higher the strenuous activity the more physical energy women have to use. Women have to train harder to attain a particular fitness level. Before one makes the conclusion that no woman could be on Special Forces such as the Navy SEALS, it should be noted that few women have attempted to join. Without a sample of women, there is no way to access possible success or failure. The only way to do that is through speculation or theorizing based on the standards and comparing theme to women’s scores in other branches of the US Military. A through experiment or examination has never been done in Special Forces to see how mixed units would preform. More women would have to join to make the statement whether women perform well or poorly. It may be awhile before a real life GI Jane emerges, but more needs to be done to attract women to Special Forces.
Women in combat will continue to a wedge issue and a controversial topic in American political and public circles. Change is inevitable and this is something the US Military must accept. Irrational trepidation or prejudice opposed to women in combat has little cogency. What must be done is to prepare for women’s full integration into combat jobs in an official capacity. Women have already been engaging in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The concept of a frontline may be disappearing with warfare touching every aspect of life. Cyberwarfare is the new front of the 21st century and many nations will be active in it. Women will not ruin the US Military or degrade its capacity to fight. America’s problem is not that its military has declined; it has become too powerful. A combination of militarism and ultra-patriotic fervor has gripped the nation. The America First policy seeks aggressive posturing against China, Iran, Russia, and even EU countries. Perpetual warfare has been a policy of the United States since the end of World War II. Doing this will eventually bankrupt the country and put soldier’s lives at risk. The economic and social toll must be avoided to prevent domestic unrest with in the United States. The role of the US Military should be defense, not nation building or neo-colonial imperialist projects. Maybe if women gain more authority in US Military leadership such policies can be changed. The fist step is allowing women to be in combat occupations. Another step to larger institutional change is to not believe the common myth about women in military service. Progress is never secure or guaranteed and it remains uncertain if the Trump administration will ensure the female service members have equal opportunity for advancement in their military careers.