Brenda Martinez is a track and field athlete who competes in middle distance races. She was born in Upland, California on September 8, 1987. Little did she know in her youth that she would become a competitive athlete. Martinez is a graduate of the University of California and competed in track while attending the university. Brenda Martinez is gradually becoming one of the most recognizable Mexican American athletes. Her athletic success can be credited to her coach Joe Vigil and her husband Carlos Handler. Her big Olympic debut came in 2016 when she qualified for the US Olympic team. She beat Amanda Eccleston and went on to compete in the 1500 meters. Brenda Martinez also represented the United States in the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships. Martinez won a silver medal in the 2013 Moscow World Championships in the 800 meters. The World Relay Championships she was able to win a gold and silver medal. These were not her only victories. She had success in the New Balance Indoor Grand Prix in both 2015 and 2017. She also was successful in the 2015 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships.
Brenda Martinez started the Big Bear Track Club with her husband as a non-profit organization. This training camp is designed to help female athletes develop their talent. The organization has been around for six years. The camp coaches and trains middle school and high school girls. There is an applications process which consists of an essay and a requirement that the girls has residency in Southern California. Martinez does not select the best runner, but applicants who show an interest in improvement and not willing to give up. The camp has activities such as running, seminars, and presentations about injury prevention as well as the need for positive thinking.
Although the athletes make this look easy, there are many times of intense challenge. Brenda Martinez has revealed that “the Olympic trials were probably the hardest thing I have ever done in my life.” A trip in the 800 meters could have dashed her hopes of making the Olympic team. Determined not to fail, she remained resilient. Martinez stated she was trying to hold back tears from this unfortunate setback. Yet, one mishap did not stop her performance in the 1500 meter. Martinez said “I knew I was strong enough to make the team, so I got back to my routine, and went back home to prepare.” Too often it is forgotten that there is a mental component to athletic competition. She was able to perform better after the tripping mishap and made the team for the United States. Brenda Martinez enjoyed her competition in the 2016 Rio Olympics. Martinez admitted “she wished she would have performed better.” Considering it was her first Olympic competition, her performance was not terrible.
Brenda Martinez plans on competing in the 2020 Olympics. Her intent is to improve through by breaking personal goals set in her journal. Brenda also felt that making more improvements in the World Championships competitions would better prepare her for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Her future looks bright and full of potential as she has no intention of slowing down. Her favorite competition moment was in 2013 when she won her bronze medal in Moscow. She made sports history by being the first American to win a medal in the 800 meters at the IAAF World Championships. Martinez gradually has become an icon among the Mexican American community. Although there will be more successes for her, Brenda’s early life was a struggle.
Brenda Martinez grew up poor. However, supportive parents allowed her to pursue her athletic career dreams. This is why she is established her track and field non-profit. She wants other children and especially girls to have more opportunity. This is why she emphasizes “never forget where you come from.” Her parents made many sacrifices for her in her youth so that she could participate in track. Athletes do need a support system to deal with the triumphs and failures of the world of sports. There is a misconception that sports stars achieve their success on their own. The support system starts sometimes at a young age. Coaches, family, and friends become a pivotal part of an athlete’s success in the long term. Brenda Martinez never forgets the love and support her family gave her to make it to this point in her athletic career. This was what inspired her to give back to the community.
Besides being a dedicated athlete Brenda Martinez enjoys writing, reading, and watching movies. Keeping a journal documenting her personal thoughts acts as a form of stress reduction. She also takes an intense interest in listening to various podcasts. Martinez has articulated that her coach has encouraged her to better herself. This is why in her words she says ” I try to learn something new everyday.” Brenda Martinez also likes soccer. If she was not a track athlete, soccer would have been her other choice for an sport to compete in. Martinez does like Selena’s music, but oddly enough does not listen to music while running. Normally, listen to music while working out helps keep a person alert and motivated. To Martinez, it may just be an unwanted distraction. Mental toughness she claims is also essential to running performance. Athletes also have inspiration from others. Brenda Martinez is a fan of Sebastian Coe. One of her favorite videos about running is “Born To Run,”which featured her favorite athlete. Martinez also enjoys cooking as one of her hobbies. Brenda has to pay close attention to diet when preparing for competition. Bread she reveals is good for running, but cuts back on consumption, because it is not one of her favorite foods. Her best advice to athletes just entering the sports world is as follows : “try to work on your happiness.” Brenda Martinez’s philosophy is to maintain a positive perspective and this will help deal with various tribulations that come with intense athletic competition.
This is Femuscleblog’s VK page, which has polls, highlighted articles from the main blog, and a group page(Femuscleblog Group Page ). There are more pictures that will be collected there for viewing. The image of the physically strong woman has proliferated and this should continue. Women are now becoming more powerful both economically and politically. There still remain challenges, but advancement is happening around the world. While these changes are noted, the revolution in the body has been ignored. Femuscleblog continues to examine this phenomenon in regards to the new image of woman.
Lifting Revolution is a website by Lindal Boyle who is a figure competitor and personal trainer. Lifting Revolution encourages a healthy life style and promotes physical fitness for women. Now that women have entered the fitness and sports world in greater numbers, they need information specific to their bodies and training. A positive element about this movement is that it has improved women’s health both mentally and physically. There are some other social aspects as well. Women with highly active lifestyles will likely marry men with similar tastes for physical contests. Women who compete in any sport are very competitive. Some even are competitive with their significant others. While women are becoming competitive in the sciences, law, politics, and business there remains one area men still dominate. Physical strength and speed men have more of an advantage. This is not an indication of biological superiority, rather the result of millions of years of evolution. Bolye states that “doesn’t that headline just irk you?” in the first line of the article. Oddly, she then replies ” it certainly does me. ” A simple statement of biological fact should not cause irritation. This is not ” sadly the truth.” Men and women have different levels of physical fitness capacity. Women who workout with their husbands seem to either get frustrated or jealous of their husband’s fitness progress. There should be no reason to get vexed at this. Sameness feminism has been at war with science that is common accepted fact. Some women have unfortunately adopted the idea in order to be equal to men, they must be similar to them. This distortion can cause many problems. Husbands and wives should not be making working out a competition, rather a fun activity. Women seeking to outperform physically fit men will find themselves in a losing battle. There are ten major reason why if your husband trains like a serious athlete his physical fitness capacity would be higher.
The new era of women’s freedom has given them more confidence. This is important that women have self-esteem. However, this drive of sameness feminism seeks to compete with men for the sake of competing with men. The girl power concept chants phrases “I can do anything a man can do” or ” the future is female.” It wants to promote the image that every woman can be strong, intelligent, and excel at anything. Women have different strengths and talents, but every woman is not a superwoman. Some women who are competitive in the athletic and fitness fields may overestimate their physical abilities. Raised in this girl power mindset, they may challenge a man in a physical contest thinking that physiology and biology are not a factor. Some even think they can beat any man. Sports data and performance shows otherwise. Women who actually decide to compete with a man of equal training either come to a dramatic realization of their capabilities or become vexed that there is a difference.
The anger comes at the idea that somehow nature made a mistake. Why does man have so much physical power, while women have to work harder to gain it? This was due to evolutionary biology and the possibility that greater male strength was designed for men competing with other men for mates. Greater physical fitness capacity may have also contributed to hunting wildlife for sustenance. Sex differences should not be viewed by women as a curse or a hindrance to their sports endeavors. Women’s sports performance may not be equal to men’s in certain physical markers, but this does not mean the are less than capable athletes. The reason weight classes are present in sports is to have a level playing field. If there were not in particular sports only the largest men would dominate. Women seeing as the weigh less and are smaller than men, having separate divisions for them is nothing more a specialized weight class that takes into account biological and physiological considerations. There have been claims that women’s divisions constitute sex segregation. Such an accusation lacks credibility due to two critical points. The divisions are designed to allow for fair contest based on size of opponents. If men are on average larger than women, this would put women at a disadvantage. Women are not barred from competing on men’s teams. There are cases in which women have competed on men’s teams. Eri Yoshida is a baseball player that has pitched for various teams.
She was the first woman to be drafted for a men’s professional baseball team. She has even pitched for teams in the United States. There is no ban against women playing on men’s baseball teams. So having women’s divisions in sports does not constitute segregation like a system akin to Apartheid or Jim Crow laws. Women should not take the difference in sports performance as being doomed to be second rate. It is more so a testament to how amazing the female body is. Women have less natural strength, but through training, diet, and dedication reach a higher fitness level compared to their starting point. There must be a repudiation of the battle of the sexes mindset. A female athlete should not have to compare her performance to a man’s just for a sense of worth or validation. It is ludicrous to get upset that reaching fitness goals or sports targets takes longer for women. Women have to train harder to reach a certain level, yet this demonstrates what diligence and determination can do. Sports and fitness are more than just strength and speed; meticulous skill is required to excel at any sport.
Muscular strength is important for athletic contests. Men have more muscle compared to women. Even women with mesomorphic body types do not match the amount of musculature as a male. Men experience a higher degree of muscular hypertrophy through weight training. There is no difference in muscle cells between men and women. Women can experience muscular hypertrophy, yet this does not mean they will grow to the size of Arnold Schwarzenegger. The largest female bodybuilders barely weigh as much as they appear. Iris Kyle multiple Ms.Olympia champion, during her competitions weighed 165 lbs while male bodybuilders reach the 200 lbs mark. Phil Heath the current Mr. Olympia weighs 240 lbs during competition. This gives an estimate of strength levels depending on fitness level.A woman who trains seriously can reach or surpass the strength level of an average male.
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When it comes to pure brute strength type II muscle fibers are the most important. These muscle fibers are responsible for explosive bursts of force. Simply having more muscle does not make a person stronger. It depends on the ratio of fast twitch type II muscle fibers . Normally, achieving a high amount of strength requires lifting heavy to induce microtrauma in the muscle. During the process of muscular hypertrophy, it rebuilds itself. Ligaments, tendons, and the skeletal structure also contribute to body strength. It is not solely muscle. Bone density also makes a huge difference. Muscles are attached to bones through tendons. This is for the sake of handling tension and force. Ligaments are similar to tendons, but are different in the sense that they are designed to attach bone to bone.Women’s bones have less density and have smaller skeletal structures. If women were to each the highest male level of strength it would require the increase in skeletal structure. The skeleton has to be big enough to support large muscles. Women ligaments also differ in size and the tendons as well. Looser joints means women could be more susceptible to particular injuries like ACL tears.
Sex is not the sole factor in physical strength, but it is a significant one. Myostatin also plays a large role in how much muscle a person can gain . The regulates muscular hypertrophy. A woman with low myostatin levels would have greater potential in terms of muscular gain. Women retain higher fat levels no matter what somatotype. The most muscular or the slimmest woman would still have a higher fat percentage. The reason the female body does this is for the sake of ovulation. If a woman’s body fat levels get to low, a female athlete could risk of amenorrhea. This condition is the absence of menstruation. Fat is normally seen as a hindrance in athletic performance, however it may give women an advantage in ultra-marathon events. Running faster to meet men’s speeds would be difficult, yet the longer the race, endurance becomes more critical. A woman’s body contains an estimated 27% fat compared to the male estimate of 15%. Muscle fiber type, musculoskeletal mass, genetics, age, and sex contribute to physical strength.Body composition and muscle mass are major factors in physical fitness capacity.
Women have smaller hearts and lungs compared to men. What this means is that men with larger hearts are able to pump more blood. This is estimated at 16% liters of blood per heartbeat more compared to women. Although women can increase their running speed, training does not increase female organ size. The more blood pump the more oxygen can be utilized for the muscle tissue. This is a vital source of energy. Larger lungs also men that men can absorb more oxygen close to 30% more than women. This explains why the author Kindal’s brother who smokes cigarettes can outrun her in a 100 meter sprint. The sheer difference in lung and heart size provides a physical advantage for men. There should be a correction noted in the article. According to some exercise physiology studies, women may actually recover better from a weight training regimen. Red blood cell count is important, yet there is still more to learn about differences in recovery from training. Red blood cells do not only carry oxygenated blood to muscles, but to other tissues This is a major factor in exercise and competition. The anatomical structures of the circulatory and respiratory system do not differ vastly between men in women.
Training does not increase organ size in relation to the heart and lungs. Muscle tissue growth functions on a different method and physiology. Knowing this about the importance of organ size it is possible for a larger woman to run faster than a smaller man. The cardiovascular system is a network of arteries and veins transporting blood through the human body. Blood is considered an organ, although it is in liquid form. It must carry oxygen, while simultaneously removing waste products. An artery by definition is the muscular walled tubes of the body which transport mostly oxygenated blood to other sections of an organism. Veins refer to the anatomical structures which are blood vessels that carry oxygen back to the heart.
The heart is an organ that is center of the circulatory system. The respiratory system has the responsibility of taking oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide from it. When oxygen is taken by the blood carbon dioxide will be released. The lungs are the major organ of the respiratory system involved in the physiology of gas exchange. The throat and nose take in air. The trachea a windpipe pathway to the lungs splits into bronchi. Athletic and physical fitness capacity is dependent on the muscular, circulatory, and respiratory system. It also must be realized that the nervous system also contributes to athletic performance. Without the nervous system both voluntary and involuntary movements would not be possible. The nervous system effects all other organ systems. When physical activity is happening the circulatory and respiratory system collaborate with one another.
Structurally, male and female bodies differ. Women have a wider pelvis to accommodate childbirth. The shape of the hips and pelvis means that women’s femurs are placed in a different angle. This is referred sometimes as a q-angle. This effects running speed in terms of biomechanical efficiency. The angle does not contribute to running speed. So even if women could match a man in muscular mass in the legs, the pelvis and q-angle of the legs would effect running speed.
The quadriceps angle has a larger arc estimated at 18 degrees. This adds another challenge. There is more pressure on women’s lower bodies. Women could get more sore from running compared to a man with limited pressure on his lower body. One difference that is over looked is women’s shorter strides. Men are on average taller than women, which means they have longer strides. This means when even walking fast a man can cover more ground. Recent studies suggest that women may have an advantage in ultramarathon events. While the strength gap is larger, endurance becomes key the longer the running distance. There still needs to be more investigation, but if this proves correct it will demonstrate that women also have physical advantages.
Endocrinology also has a role in physical fitness capacity. Men produce more testosterone which aids in a greater extent of protein synthesis. This also leads to men’s greater levels of muscular hypertrophy through training. Boys are not born physically stronger than girls. Prior to puberty, there is little strength difference between the sexes. Girls actually mature faster physically, growing taller. However, hormones act differently for males and females. Women do produce lower levels of testosterone, but the primary sex hormone in the female body is estrogen and progesterone. As a girl’s body transforms into an adult woman the menstrual cycle begins. A certain level of fat is needed for ovulation. Simultaneously, women reach their maximum height sooner. Boys may grow slower, but at the end of the Tanner stages have more height. The boy’s body goes through strength spurts. The growth of the gonads induces strength spurts that occur in males during puberty. Women do not gain strength spurts from their endocrionological changes. During men’s strength spurt the chest and shoulders will broaden. The trunk of the male body also becomes more pronounced. Added muscle mass and bone density increases male physical optimum. Women will not gain advantages in terms of the change. Testosterone does have benefit to physical fitness capacity. This explains why a female athlete who uses anabolic steroids can see dramatic results with a minimal dosage. Steroids are synthetic deviates of testosterone.
Growth hormone makes the body grow for both men and women. The best period for muscle growth is between the ages 15 and 25. After age 25 muscle mass gradually declines in adults.Hormones also effect behavior. It cannot be ignored that men’s higher testosterone levels may have a correlation to competitiveness. Sports by nature are very competitive, which may explain why men are more drawn to such activities. Endocrinology or biology cannot provide an answer to why there are more men in sports. It must be realized that women are either discouraged or at times excluded from certain areas of the sports world. Saying that it is merely the endocrine system and the psychological effects of it is not enough to tell the story of the sociological implications. Men may be encouraged not to be more competitive, rather take dangerous risks. Both biology and sociology can explain why men seek more adventure and peril. While this provides for a life rich in experience, it also means a shorter one. Men are more likely to die from high risk behaviors. The endocrine system does not only effect the organs of the body, but behavior as well.
Perspiration serves to cool off the human body when exerted and in an environment of high temperature. Surprisingly, women and men cool off differently. Women under intense exertion do not cool off as efficiently. This makes maintaining energy more of a challenge. Studies show that women respond differently to heat. However, there is also evidence that how body responds to heat may be independent of biological sex. It is possible that people with smaller body size reduce heat by increasing blood circulation in the body. Larger people may be more reliant on perspiration to reduce heat.
What can be extrapolated from various studies is that women, being smaller would be more reliant on increased blood circulation. If such a theory is correct about body size correlation, then that mean female runners would have to adjust their training method. Understanding the biological and physical differences allows for a fitness program that can be tailored specifically for a woman’s physiology. Under mild heat conditions thirst increases to replace the water lost in sweat. Glands that are on the skin secrete sweat and the liquid will evaporate there by cooling the body’s surface. The blood vessels of the skin dilate, which increases blood flow. This gives the appearance of the skin look red ( sometimes referred to as “flushed” ) . Dealing with temperature changes in the body and environment is a factor that an athlete has to consider when in competition.
Athletic competition is not solely about the physical prowess or skill; there is a mental element. The desire and motivation to compete and remain consistent with plans takes an immense amount of mental strength. There may be points in which frustration and lack of enthusiasm may hinder an athlete’s involvement and performance. Injuries or a series of major losses can have a psychological effect. One of the reasons sports psychology has grown is to teach athletes coping mechanisms for setbacks or to aid in rehabilitation from injuries. Keeping the competitive spirit and having team building strategies makes a difference in performance. Women have to unlearn certain behaviors that were taught to them at a young age. It has changed to a degree, but girls are not raised to be competitive. Girls are not taught to be confident in their abilities or to have high self-esteem. Even women who reach the apex of their field may still have feelings of self doubt. The only way for a woman to overcome this is to relinquish the restrictive and self imposed behavior taught in accordance with cultural gender roles. The traditional view is that women should not be ambitious, competitive, or assert themselves. These are dated notions, but they still persist in society. The mental gap can be fully closed with the female athlete. This can only happen with building enough confidence and reducing the fear of risk.
A common error is to assume that men are the better athletes based on sex differences. This is incorrect for the following reasons. For a longtime women were cast as biological inferiors. This was not true as exercise physiology demonstrates. Women with training can see improvement in their physical fitness capacity. The challenge is having more studies that are focused on women’s athletic performance. A majority of exercise physiology research focuses mostly on male athletes. This means women are not given the best information on how to train based on their anatomical and biological structure. There has been change, but it will take time to redress particular disparities. Women were excluded from a multitude of professional sports. Only in recent decades have their numbers been growing. An examination of sports performances shows that women’s records have improved compared to their predecessors of the 20th century. The performance gap may not close between men and women, but it may get smaller. Women’s performance is based relative to their size. One would not call a smaller man an inferior athlete. The image of women being less capable in sports has been part of its long misogynistic history. However, women have shown that they are not only capable they can be entertaining.
It simply makes no sense for a woman to vexed that her husband progresses faster in an exercises regimen. This is why there are weight classes in particular sports to allows for people of various sizes to compete. Otherwise only the largest people would dominate sports. Women should not compare themselves with men, rather focus on reaching there own goals. There may be frustration that it takes longer to see the fruits of one’s labor, but that makes the accomplishment more gratifying. While Kindal Boyle states ” sadly ladies here’s the truth” in regards to physical differences there should be a reminder of the growing presence of strong women. The female body is remarkable in the fact that it is capable of birth and athletic feats that centuries ago many would have thought impossible. It was thought that pregnancy would hinder women’s athletic performance and that women could not regain performance prior to gestation. That has been discredited. Although women will have a harder time reaching a particular fitness level, women make significant progress compared to starting point. Considering the fitness level, size, or genetics of a woman’s husband it is possible that she may end up stronger.There is one way in which women have more strength than men. Longevity women surpass men on average. Instead of competing with each other exercise regimens should be done for fun and improvement of health. Couples can benefit by be aware of each others health.
Noami Osaka became the first Japanese woman to win the US Open defeating longtime champion Serena Williams. The match was a controversial one, due to the actions of the umpire in the match. Williams protested the penalty ruling. History was made with this match as Osaka became the first Japanese Woman to win a Grand Slam. Serena Williams although victory eluded her still has performed entertaining matches. Child birth and complications from recovery have been a challenge for Williams, yet she was able to make a stunning comeback. Osaka represents a new face of Japan. Normally, the Japanese nation is seen as racially homogeneous and not accepting of mixed raced citizens. So far, it seems that the Japanese press is embracing Osaka’s success. This could have a positive impact on race relations in Japan. The country needs a victory with the turbulence of the Shinzo Abe premiership, the tensions with North Korea, the economy, and a more powerful China. Williams and Osaka should both be praised for producing a great match, but also increasing the profile of women’s sports. Both the US and Japanese press have been covering the match extensively. These two tennis champions will confront one another again and it will be more intense.
This photograph taken in 1992 was of the Nigerian women’s 400 meter relay team by Ken Geiger and William Snyder. They were covering the Olympics for the Dallas Morning News. What appears to be a celebration of victory was not because the athletes won. They performed better than they had expected. Normally, athletes are frustrated with any placing that is not first place. The special element about this photograph that it captures both the joy and comradery among members of a sports team. The hugs and embrace show that this was a collective effort. There is also a social and political significance to this photograph. Female athletes by this time were getting more coverage in newspapers compared to the previous decades of the 20th century. The press in sports reporting mostly covered men. It was even more rare that people of color were covered in Western mainstream media. Nigeria was a country that was subject to British colonial rule until independence in 1960. When Nigeria began sending athletes to the Olympics it was a symbol of national unity and pride. The Nigerian women’s team not only was good news for the nation, but provided a powerful image young girls could aspire to. This photograph was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1993.