Strong Girls Can : Why Women Can’t Lift As Much As A Man Can

Why Women Can’t Lift As Much As A Man

Before thinking in the context of limitations, there should be a through examination of  biological and physiological facts. Sexual dimorphism is not the only factor in physical strength. As sports science demonstrates nutrition and training are more complex than so would realize. Women are relative new comers to professional sport, which may explain some of the difference in performance, which may not just be solely biological. Most information related to women and training is based off of studies conducted on men. This means more efficient method must be employed to meets women’s needs in terms of  their biology, anatomy, and physiology. A woman can lift more than a man who is unfit or weak if trains rigorously. Men have the advantage of more natural strength relative to starting point in relation to training  regimen. Women therefore have to train harder to reach a certain physical fitness capacity. Both men and women reach a physical fitness peak in which they can no longer become stronger or faster.  The physical differences are why certain sports are separated by sex. However, there is a possibility of overlap. It is not impossible that a woman could beat a man of the same fitness level. Certain athletes male and female have a unique physiology, which give them an edge over their competition. The title should be rephrased, because women are capable of lifting more and being stronger than a man. It should be phrased “why physically fit women’s performance does not match that of men of the same size. “

       Comparing men and women of a similar size gives us interesting results. The 69 Kg category has a difference in male and female records. The record holds 169 kg ( 372 lbs )  for men and 123 kg( 271 lbs )  for women. That is a difference of 46 kg. The assumption would be that difference in weight lifted would be larger compared to men.  That would mean a woman in that weight category would just have to lift 46 kg (101 lbs)  to be equal to male performance. This gap considering sex differences should be bigger, but it shows that women are not biologically limited. Women would have to train their upper body more.

It is harder for women to reach a certain fitness level due to biology, physiology, anatomy, and endocrine function. 

Women have less muscle mass in their upper bodies. Compared to lower body strength this would be easier to build. The use of the legs is essential to weightlifting . This does not mean that women have stronger legs than men contrary to popular belief. The muscular strength difference can effect various parts of the body of the male. This means women have to train harder to reach a certain strength level. Intensity is the key to inducing more muscular hypertrophy. lifting heavy can be effective, even if it is done once a week. If a person is trying to be a serious athlete the regimen must be consistent. Maintaining muscle requires exercise and a proper diet. Women with no training only have about 52% of the upper body strength of a male. The lower body constitutes 66% of male strength. This means a woman of the same size would be at a 14% difference in physical strength. Sports that require upper body strength like boxing, powerlifting, or rowing. Men have more absolute strength and would actually be stronger from a training regimen. 

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Men would see results from their training regime faster compared to women. If both sexes followed the same training it would normally result in males have higher physical fitness capacity. 

Men have the advantage in pure brute strength, however women appear to be more fatigue resistant. Women can lift a sub-maximal amount of weight for a period of time. The muscular endurance advantage is related to type I muscle fibers. This type of muscle fiber is more resistant to fatigue, yet cannot project explosive power. Type II slow twitch muscle fiber, which men have more of provides an edge on physical strength. One method of  building strength requires the adjustment of the repetition maximum. Lower repetitions with heavy weights are designed to increase muscular strength can size. It is not merely having a large cross section of muscle, fiber type makes a difference. 

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1 RM stands for repetition maximum which is the most weight that can be lifted in repeatedly. 

Men and women of a similar size could be closer in strength, but males maintain an upper body advantage. The strength difference seems small compared to the numbers considering differences in physiology. Theoretically,  a woman would have to use most of her reserve strength to lift on the same level as a man of a similar size. Reserve strength is what a person has to perform task that do not take an immense amount of exertion. Maximal strength is used when using full effort for a physical task. A 69 Kg (152 lbs )  woman would have 66% of the strength of her male counterpart . 

         Puberty is when major change alter the fitness of the body. Prior to this time, boys and girls are at the same level of strength. Boys are not stronger than girls prior to puberty. There could be sociological reasons for why women’s fitness levels are lower. The desire to look thin or the emphasis on weigh loss based diets may be doing harm. Body image disorders and bone health  decline could be a result in women’s declining strength as they age. Boys are still encouraged to do more sports and develop physical skills. Physical education classes for girls have a different set of standards, even when physiological differences have not have an impact on physical ability. Women have been excluded from the world of sports and fitness for a long period of time. The modern Olympics started in 1896, but women’s weightlifting one appeared in the year 2000. Even today women face obstacles. Discrimination does not account for the obvious changes that occur in the body. Boys’ bodies when they transform into men’s bodies testosterone allows for bigger muscles and denser bones. 

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Virtually there is no upper body difference. There is indication that changes are happening as early as the age of ten. Female strength is still at 90% of boys. Around age 15 it holds at an estimated 75%. Once boys get their strength spurts they are stronger.
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Boys from birth to age 13 have no significant strength advantage.
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Separation of boys and girls sports teams would not be necessary considering male physical fitness capacity has not dramatically increased at this stage in the human life cycle.

The gonads which are the sex glads known as the testis and ovaries are responsible for the hormonal changes. The total amount of testosterone does not contribute to physical strength, rather it is the amount of free testosterone in the body. Men produce ten times more the amount of testosterone than women, which aids in muscular hypertrophy. However, it is not required for women to build muscle. Women have similar responses to weight training. The phrase “bulking up ” is inaccurate. It is building muscle. Estrogen would not be an impairment to weightlifting. Estrogen blocks protein damage. This can be useful in the fight against muscle soreness, although some damage is needed for muscular hypertrophy. Estrogen effects body composition in terms of fat to muscle ratio. 

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Puberty is a stage in the human life cycle in which a child’s body transforms into an adult one capable of sexual reproduction. 

Puberty effects male and female athletes differently. Women gain more flexibility and balance. The biggest factor in lifting is that women have smaller and narrower  shoulders, which results in reduced articular surface. Lower hemoglobin levels means the aerobic capacity is effected. Lungs do not grow bigger in the female body. The heart also remains smaller. Puberty reduces women’s physical optimum, while increasing men’s physical optimum. Weight training can still increase female strength. Endocrinology explains only part of the differences in strength and how much weight can be lifted. 

     There are other factors that determine strength . The nervous  system plays a role in your ability to generate power. Neural efficiency is imperative to lifters. The way in which motor units are activated make a difference in strength. When a weightlifter picks ups a weight motor units are firing to the muscle fibers. The more efficient they are the easier it is to perform. There has been very little evidence to suggest that women’s motor neurons function differently. The length of limbs also effects strength. People with short limbs have an advantage in leverage. This may be to women’s benefit compared to men’s longer limbs. Variation in muscle length can also effect total strength. Having longer muscle length gives a person a greater strength advantage. 

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When doing research into sports performance, be careful of the sources used. What was cited was an article by the New York Times called “Why Women Can’t Do Pull-ups .” That was a false statement and  there are women that can do this exercise ( Rebuttal to New York Times). 

Tendons and their point of insertion are also factors in physical strength. If the tendon has an insertion point that allows the bone and muscle to be attached better, this would be a biomechanicial advantage. Tendons are what securely attaches muscles to the skeletal structure. Tendon fibers consist of callogen  and are designed to resist heavy forces on the body. Age also is a factor. As a person ages, they will gradually lose muscle mass and strength. Weightlifting and exercise can reverse muscle and bone loss due to senescence . Women would be effected more seeing as mostly their body composition is fat and have lower amount of bone mass. Through the life cycle starting at youth boys and girls are the same strength level. When adulthood is reached men have more muscular bodies. During the elder years men lose a portion of their strength due to the changes brought about by lowered testosterone levels. Somatotype is also a factor. A person with a naturally mesomorphic body type will build muscle easier compared to an ectomorphic person. Endomorphic individuals may struggle to lose weight. This explains why a thin man who has more testosterone than a muscular woman is still physically weaker. Genetics particularly the influence   ACTG 1, STY 1, PEX 14, and TGFA. Recently, scientists have identified these genes associated with strength.  ACTG 1 has to give instructions to gamma y actin proteins to perform muscular contraction. Actin alpha 3 and ACE dictate muscle fiber distribution and endurance. These other factors may explain why some women could get stronger than some men on the same training regime. 

         Surely,  there are women who can lift more than a man can. Absolute strength differs among the sexes. Yet, potential can vary vastly. Women are thought not to “bulk up” from weight training. There is no such thing as” toning “or “bulking up.” There is muscle growth. These colloquial terms appear in various fitness materials. The science articulates the transformation of the  human body in a different way. Muscular hypertrophy functions in the same way for both sexes. There is a quantitative approach charting fitness progress by the amount of mass gained. Precise measures of strength must be calculated. Hand grip may be an estimation, but bench press totals are more reliable as an indicator of upper body strength.  

These strong  women can lift more than these thin  men can. Men are on average stronger, but that does not mean every single man is stronger than every woman.The “bulky” female bodybuilders are not really that large at all. Margie Martin weighs only 154 lbs and Britt Miler when active was 125 lbs. Compared to the strongest males pictured  would outweigh them most likely by 30 lbs or more. Here it is obvious that both strong men could out lift them based on their bigger upper bodies. 

Muscular hypertrophy is dependent on stimulation and repair. After lifting weights, during the rest phase muscle repair themselves from the microtrauma. The cells will grow due to protein synthesis.  Muscular hypertrophy can be classified into two different types sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar . Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy enables increased glycogen storage. When myofibrillar causes the actual myofibrils to get bigger. The vast amount of varying potential is genetic. A person’s unique physiology that is partly inherited by a combination of genes gives athletes an advantage. Florence Griffith Joyner and Usain Bolt are examples of such genetic gifts. This does not negate that there is a huge amount of diligence and effort that goes into training . Depending on the man,  a woman could be stronger. A 181 lbs woman could bench press 85 pounds without training. Strength benchmarks are classified as novice, intermediate, advanced, and elite. The largest woman ‘s lifting levels go from 110, 120, 160, and 195 pounds as estimates. A smaller woman of 132 lbs can have a bench press weight of 70 pounds. Their ranges go from 85, 95, 125 and 150. These are rough estimates and it should be realized that every man and woman is different. The average American man weighs close to 196 lbs. The novice male lifter can reach 175 lbs for bench press. Intermediate male lifter can reach 215 lbs and  elites in the 290 lbs range.These estimates are based on what was collected from coaches and trainers, meaning they are estimates. 

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These are some data samples from powerlifting events. The difference between the strongest elite men and women is 275 lbs. The difference is smaller with the weakest males and females with a difference of 65 lbs. The reason the bench press data would be pronounced is due to men having larger upper bodies and more androgen receptors in that part of the body.  

A 114 lbs man in a class IV bench press range would still be weaker than a woman in an elite level of 135 lbs. The strongest woman with the 225 lbs bench press can out lift a 114 lbs man in the masters classification. There are women based on some samples collected that can out lift men in a group. what this indicates is that men just have an advantage in size, not muscle quality. The smallest person is female at 97 lbs. The smallest male is 114 lbs. The weakest male has a 17 lbs strength advantage. This is why weigh classes are used in sports, because otherwise the largest men and women would dominate. 

         Technique also is pivotal to weightlifting. There are multiple theories on what is the best one. What best describes the lifting technique is a movement pattern. Gradually adopting these movement patterns  makes the action more biomechanically efficient. Learning a series of movement patterns would therefore improve the performance of an athlete. A weightlifter must learn to do full ranges of motion incorporating their legs and upper body. Women have to be aware of certain anatomical differences when doing such lifts. Pelvic floor  strength is pivotal considering many women have incontinence. This is also a problem for female lifters. Taking into consideration that women are different in the quadriceps angle training would have to modified to prevent injury. Women who are large in the bust must also contend with extra weight attached to their chest. Technology has become helpful in this circumstance, with the invention of the sports bra. The sports bra allowed more women to engage in physical activity with more comfort.It should  not be assumed that bigger muscle automatically means more strength. Body composition and muscle fiber type seem to be the major factors in that determination. 

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The bodybuilders may look strong, but may not be able to lift as much as an Olympic weightlifter. 

That is why it is possible that a man that looks huge may not even be able to out lift a woman that appears smaller. Varvara Yuriyivna Akulova lifted 661 pounds (300 kg) in 2006. At only 48 pounds in the year 2000 she lifted 220 pounds. She made her way into the Guinness Book of World Records at the age of eight as “the world’s strongest girl.” That 661 pound lift would be in the elite level range of male lifters.  This exception demonstrates that people regardless of sex carry a combination of genes that contribute to their performance. Akulova comes from a family of strongmen and circus performers. Her father also used old time strongman training techniques with her as a child. Her athletic feats are a combination of genetics, training, and technique. While learning new physical skills contributes to performance, there is also a mental factor. 

          Psychological state effects performance. Motivation is essential specifically at the highest levels of competition. This is why sports psychology has become so critical. Having a competitive spirit and enthusiasm  makes a large difference. There seems to be a competitiveness gap that exists between men and women in sport. This is part sociological and biological. Testosterone is thought to increase levels of risk taking behavior and competitiveness. The endocrine system has a major influence on behavior of organisms. If women have less testosterone, they may have less of a desire to be competitive. This cannot be based on biology alone. Competitiveness can be fostered in environment or is related to personality type. Men are expected and encouraged to be more competitive compared to women. Boys are taught physical skills from a early age and girls are discourage from full use of their bodies. There is progress however, with more women getting involved in sports at younger ages. Yet , the drop out rate remains high once girls enter puberty. The physical changes are harder for girls who are in sports competition. Once the growth process is over, it becomes easier to navigate training. There is no “mentally stronger sex” as the text proclaims. Men have just been stereotyped as being the tougher ones. This has been harmful in regards to mental health for men who have limited outlets for emotional expression. Both men and women can see benefits to psychological well being with physical activity.  

           The question arises is why women do not have the same physical fitness capacity compared to males if the muscular and respiratory system are the same . Human evolution and the product of sexual dimorphism are the reasons. There are several theories for why men are bigger and stronger. Sex selection and more specific natural selection contributed to the survival of  hominids. The difference in size probably meant that competition for females was fierce and males fought for access to them. Not only was there fights for females, but territory among the genus homo species.Male competition for females may not even be the correct answer. Hunting could be a probable theory. Primates  probably needed stronger males to be able to run fast and be in shape to capture food. This may have been the case when archaic humans added meat to their diet. As human evolution progressed, size differences between males and females got less pronounced compared to our early primate ancestors. Neantherthals were most likely stronger than modern humans. 

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Human evolution caused a number of changes to the body. The cranial volume increased, humans became bipedal, and the size the intestines decreased to accommodate a part meat consumption. 

Sexual dimorphism related to size was larger in neanderthals and denisovans. There may have been a possibility of cross breeding between neanderthals, denisovans, and archaic humans.   Much of these are claims are still theoretically in regards for the reason for sex differences. To date there has not been a discovery of a common genetic ancestor (mistakenly called a missing link), which all primates branch off  from the evolutionary tree. Women’s bodies evolved a certain way to accommodate pregnancy and thus enabling the propagation of a particular set of genes and traits into the environment. Natural selection favors a trait, which is why it may have a recurring appearance in certain groups of plants and animals. Sex differences are nothing more than physical evidence of biological evolution. Making claims that differences are indicators of superiority or inferiority is false and unscientific. Nature only cares about survival, not the  biological properties of the organism. Triolbites, dinosaurs, and early mammals became extinct, because they could not adapt to a changing  environment. What should be realized that biology and sexual dimorphism can be flexible. That is why some women can be bigger and stronger than some men. Considering this information it is clear that women do have the ability to out lift men depending on size, height, weight, somatotype, genetics, technique, and years of training experience.    

Strong Girls Can : Why Women Can’t Lift As Much As A Man Can

Seven Things Never To Say On A Date With A Muscular Woman With Katrin Davidsdottir

Katrin Davidsdottir crossfit athlete,   gives dating advice to men who are interested in seeking relationships with muscular women in a Reebock video presentation . She explains what not to do with seven simple steps. There are particular things that female athletes just do not want to hear on a date. Avoid these seven comments  and the evening may go smoothly. The contemporary era has shown that courtship is more challenging. For men, it is  actually worse. Rejection is constant and it seems most people struggle with loneliness. Women can get into a relationship much easier, due to the fact their is very little they have to do. Men on the other hand have to make the arrangements, pay for dinner. and constantly maintain a positive energy in a romantic partnership. There is a constant complaint that for some women saying “there are no good men out there,” When that is further from the truth. The lugubrious reality is that women are attracted to power and status ignoring ethical character. Arrogance women confuse with confidence, which in some cases leads to women selecting awful men as their partners. The most extreme cases could involve women constantly going to men who verbally or physically abuse them. This attraction to men who could be potentially abusive makes the #Me Too Movement also seem like a lost cause. Although there are some comments you should never express on a date, the same should be applied to women.  Women should also be mindful of their etiquette.  Katrin Davidsdottir does have a legitimate argument about proper courtship manners.

         One comment that should be avoided is “you look pretty strong for a girl.” It should be noted that if you are on a date with a professional female athlete she is probably going to be very strong. They train on a daily basis and get more exercise than the average person. Calling a woman a “girl” is also a problem. This is a way of denoting youth and associating it with beauty and vibrant energy. The subtle sexism is that it almost treats a woman as a child and by them aging it an awful thing. Women are pressured to look a certain way or hide the fact they age. Women who do not fit in the dominant paradigm of beauty are either ostracized or ridiculed by the wider society.

The muscular woman presents a completely different paradigm that some men may not understand or be used to. Women are still viewed in the context of gender stereotypes. The idea of weak, helpless, and dependent female still seems present in the minds of some men. When  a woman demonstrates independence or intelligence men who hold misogynist convictions attack them. These have become more tolerable traits as time went on, but a woman of great physical strength is unacceptable. Sexists use physical strength as an example of  male superiority, yet this is debunked by the female athlete. Strength is not a male only monopoly. The insecure men retort with “she’s a man ” or “she’s on steroids.” The video itself is flooded with such weak and closed minded individuals it really demonstrates a crisis in masculine identity. Men are so threatened by a powerful woman they revert to puerile vituperation. Then there are misogynists who just hate all women and believe that women being successful harms society.

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Sadly, these men are going to be left behind in a world of rapid progress in women’s roles. Men who are more open minded and curious about this new type of woman should be careful how they phrase questions. The man who decides to date a muscular woman should ask questions, but not express them in a way that could be offensive to the lady. Women should not get so easily offended by a question or phrase.  Katrin Davidsdottir quips in the video “I’m just strong”  in response to the strong for a girl comment. Women with a strong feminist ideological bent think by adding “female” to athlete or “for a girl” demeans women’s accomplishments. It does not unless one considers females as being worthless. Being strong for a girl may not be such an insult. It shows that the athlete was able to gain power and strength through their diligence alone. These women are not your average women. Their strength is far greater than an average male. There is no doubt that a woman of such stature is just strong.

          Asking if you can touch a woman’s muscles may seem harmless at first, but it should be examined from another perspective. If one were to ask “can I touch your butt?” or “feel your breasts”  it is more obvious why asking this is wrong. Such behavior would be classified as sexual harassment. Groping specifically by men seems to be a major problem in the workplace and other public areas.

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Making the suggestion does not improve the situation. We all have urges to do certain things, but we should not act on them. Men have to learn to control their behavior around women in both public and private life. The reason that sexual misconduct and harassment is prevalent is that the sexual objectification of women has made it acceptable that such inappropriate behavior is normal. Inappropriate behavior can come from men of all  different types, but men who are higher in social status believe they have a right to treat women however they please. Celebrities and CEOs are being arrested and tried for sexual misconduct. There are degrees of abuse and unsettling comments such as feeling  parts of the body can still be harmful. Sexual objectification may have warped some men’s perceptions and way they interact with women. Not all men are sexual predators, yet saying certain comments on a date may make a woman think you are one. Conversions should center around common interests  or other matters not possible sexual desires or fantasies. Avoid asking her to arm wrestle or wrestle in general. This is a person with thoughts and feelings not a fetish object.

            A man needs to understand that a goal driven woman is very dedicated. Never say that she is being selfish doing so. Sports and fitness takes much time and effort. There should be some understanding about aspirations and what makes her happy. The best thing a man can do is to be supportive of her endeavors.  If she spending a lot of time in the gym or in sports competition it just means she is working.

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Scheduling activities can help reduce this misunderstanding. Maybe meeting one another does not always have to be a rigidly planned activity. Being in each others company could be enough.  If you want to be with your muscular woman maybe you could join her at the gym. A common activity always strengthens the relationship. Calling her selfish would be a major mistake and could end the relationship completely. The opposite would be an extreme clinger. They call your phone, text constantly, or show up to your place of work. Clingers fear being abandoned which is why they constantly attach to their partner. This may either be related to an self-esteem issue or problem in the past. They are in constant relationships , but never find the personal fulfillment they are looking for. A partner with some distance from you is not a bad thing.

          Being a physically strong woman does complicate dating. Male insecurity , shallow attitudes, or ignorance may limit the dating selection. Some men believe showing more dominant and assertive behavior will generate more of a response from women. However, when expressing “do you think you’re stronger than I am ?” it shows a level of insecurity. It projects it even more with comments such as “I would never date a woman stronger than I am.”  Strength has been so tied to masculine identity, that when men do not fit into the gender stereotype, they try to assert it by degrading women. Most likely the muscle woman is stronger than the men she meets. These wanna be alphas in a state of delusion say these women are not as strong as the strongest man. They ignore the fact the women are stronger than they are. May be its not always malevolence, It could be a way to impress the muscular woman in question. A woman of high intelligence, strength, and character would be hard to amaze.

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Men often do dangerous or insane acts to impress women. One reason that men engage in perilous work or activity is that there is the suggestion of female attention. There is a reason that women seem to follow a man in a military or police uniform. A strong woman is her own hero. She looks different from other women. This does not mean one needs to constantly point that out. Never say her hands look rough. Her hands may have callouses from lifting a whole bunch, but she can still paint her nails. Do not assume that a man taught her what she knows about fitness and sports. Telling her “did your brother teach you to lift ?” is not a good starter to an engaged conversation.  Katrin Davidsdottir ends the video stating that women just like others like compliments on their accomplishments and their athletic feats. Avoid these seven comments then a relationship with a female athlete will be sustainable.  There should also be some comments women should avoid. First asking how much a man makes is not appropriate for the first date. Remember to tank the gentleman for the date after it is over. If the series of dates leads to a long  term relationship, offer to pay for dinner once in awhile. Here is another radical solution: women should ask men out. Women should not have to wait for a man to come to them. Men should not have to constantly chase. Both sexes being proactive can help make modern dating a more pleasant experience. Online dating sites may just make the experience more complicated than it needs to be. Getting discouraged is a normal feeling. There is always a chance of finding someone as long as you never quit.

Seven Things Never To Say On A Date With A Muscular Woman With Katrin Davidsdottir

Words Of Praise To The Women Who Pushed Their Physiques To The Maximum

There are a portion of men who love female muscle. Yet, there are different tastes. Some say their is an extent in which women gain too much. Others just say “I like a woman who is in shape” or “just athletic.” They attempt to distinguish they do not like female bodybuilders. While muscular women may not be everyone’s preference, there has to be a level of respect for their accomplishments. Detractors make the argument that such physiques caused the death of the sport or scared women away from lifting. The fact is women’s sports get less exposure, not because women are poor athletes rather their is prevalent sexism within the sports culture. Corporate gatekeepers control what people see and do not attempt to market it to audiences that want to see such athletes. Such women should be praised for developing their physiques to an maximum. Detractors or those who do not understand state women went too far or have gone “extreme.” The term extreme can be relative. To some men who who do not fit into a size zero may be extreme. When such labels are used it only exposes a double standard. The point of being an athlete is to improve and increase your performance; not limit yourself for the sake of societal convention. Women are pressured to do this in areas or fields that are thought to be traditionally male. There are numerous reasons women should be praised for pushing their physical limits. They challenge social convention, make a bold women’s rights statement, demonstrate that women’s sports can be entertaining, and do this under less than favorable circumstances. There is a beautiful aesthetic that only a longtime observer and fan of the strength sports can truly appreciate.

        The common social convention is that women should all look a certain way. Women are held to a different standard in regards to appearance. When they challenge this notion they are ostracized. The most muscular women challenge the concept of women being weak, passive, and being men’s property. There has been some gradual acceptance among some related to the image of the muscular woman. However, these supporters say their is a limit. Getting “too big” reduces femininity in their perspective. Everyone has a preference and a different view on muscular aesthetics, but to say women are less woman like because they are strong is ludicrous.

Some men and women who make these claims either are closed minded or simply do not like people who are different. Society likes conformity and conformists rarely make history or world shaking change. There are those who may just be ignorant of what these women do and when knowledge is imparted, they become more understanding. The muscular woman challenges gender convention in a society that believes women should limit themselves . Things change and people must get used to it. The body image positive movement stresses  the importance of self-esteem in appearance and challenging a ridged standard of beauty. While it seems that the curvy women or bigger girls are more visible, other women are ignored. Why should they be ?  The muscular woman pioneered body positive image even before this 21st century movement.  Women have so changed their image in the sports and bodybuilding world some have even stated they went too far.

There are women who have over the course of the bodybuilding sports produced physiques that were just as impressive as their male counterparts. This was criticized in the fitness community as being “too extreme.” Well, if extreme meant being fantastically accomplished by this measure the women were extreme. Although various pejoratives were directed at them, they continued to be successful.Some sports fans and observers still think that men are the better athletes , yet women have proven them wrong. The more vituperative detractors state “these women look like men” or “they are manly.”  It should be noted that not every man is as built as they are. People look different from one another. At least in America, you have the freedom to be what you want. If women can be scientists, CEOs, and politicians why not have full control of their appearance and bodies? Normally, detractors give some reason that lack cogency. The first is that women’s bodies are designed for child birth only. This is blatantly sexist, but the belief is common. Women’s sole purpose in life is not to have children and please men. Another argument detractors make is that this is unnatural or unhealthy  for the female body. They say this even i the athlete achieves their physique by natural or pharmaceutical means. Drugs have been a part of sports for a longtime, but women are not the biggest consumers of performance enhancing drugs.

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Who cares if she uses drugs or not? This is very impressive.

If there is such a concern about actual health most Americans are either drinking or eating too much. Limited physical activity makes it worse. Obesity has become a public heath issue. The problem is also spreading outside the developed world with fast food becoming more available globally. There are many things we do to our bodies that are not natural. Plastic surgery, genetic engineering, and transhumanism will become more common place in the future. Nature its self is strange when examining the changes that involving human evolution. Biology does not follow a set path; it could be erratic. Now humanity has the ability to control its own biology through technological and scientific knowledge.

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The women who are drinking and smoking , may not be in the best of health later. While the athletes at the bottom may be pushing her body to its highest limits, there are worse things one could do to it. 

The argument against women building strength to such a degree based on heath lacks cogency. There are many unhealthy activities people engage in, yet there is little to no criticism of those activities.  Smoking although it has been reduced in the US is considered an acceptable activity. At one time it was not for women in the United States. Cigarette companies realized that women were a big demographic, which meant more potential buyers. If cigarettes were marketed women in a certain way that show them being more independent and powerful women would buy them. Women in the 1920s began buying more cigarettes. It was the age of the Roaring Twenties and the flappers were women who repudiated gender conventions of earlier generations. Women building muscle whether by unaided or pharmaceutical  is not anymore dangerous the the common unhealthy activities people engage in on a daily basis. Like the suffragettes or flappers the muscular woman repudiates the social conventions of gender.

          Women developing their physiques to this extent makes a bold feminist statement. The feminists normally talk about empowerment, but other factions do not act on this conviction. The rhetoric is articulated; the action is never carried out. To the empowerment feminists women doing just about anything could be considered empowering. Simply getting out of bed they would praise a woman for. These women have taken empowerment to a new level by empowering themselves physically. Women’s bodies were viewed through the perspective of medicine and biology as being inferior to that of men. The difference in physical strength had been used by sexists has a way to say men are better. While on average men are stronger, women can build significant strength through training. The narrative of  “men are strong and women are weak” gradually crumbles. There are some men who feel that women need to be controlled, by force if necessary. A woman strong enough can defend herself from violence and not have to be reliant on male protection. The image of male protector was nothing more than a myth. It is highly likely that women in their lifetimes will be abused or attacked by an intimate partner. Developing physical skills and strength liberates women in more ways than one could have imagined. Certain tasks can be done without male assistance. Moving furniture, opening jars, groceries, or shoveling snow become easier.  When men see this they come to the realization they do not have a monopoly on sports or strength.

This almost seems like a silent revolution that few are paying attention to. The feminists of the third wave and the emerging fourth wave do not even seem to be focusing on this seriously. The women who are active in developing their physiques do not even realize they are making a feminist statement. Many do not want to use that label because it has been associated with either a pejorative. Stereotypical images of man-haters and bra burners are recycled through the media ad nasusem. Despite these images, it should be realized that feminism is a vast body of political and social thought that advocates women’s rights and equality by basic definition. This phenomenon of the strong woman could be classified under amazon feminism. This branch has not been fully developed or articulated, rather it describes the sudden acceptance of women who demonstrate physical skill and prowess. The biggest change is that female athletes are not as afraid to show their more muscular bodies.

It is not only about what the body looks like; it is about what it can do. Women competing in the Olympics train specifically for a certain sport. These sports involve strength, speed, agility, and skill. Their bodies do not just look powerful; they are. That is the most radical statement. A woman’s body is more than just appearance. It can come in different shapes and sizes. Maybe amazon feminism is turning into a coherent idea or dispersed cultural movement. It still seems too early to tell. However, there has been no point in documented history in which women have developed themselves physically to this level. There are myths of amazons and Valkyries, but it appears they are becoming real in front of our eyes. Women’s history may be taking a revolutionary turn culturally, socially, and politically. This phenomenon of the change in the female body could just be one part of that.

       Claims that women’s sports are not interesting a challenged when examining the mass amounts of internet traffic directed at athletes’  social media and websites. Seeing women like this is rare so it is no wonder such videos generate views. Comments can either be positive or negative. However, it is a fact that their is a fan base for such women. Fans are amazed by their athletic feats as well as what they consider another form of beauty. There are many reactions that such physiques on women generate. There is a shock factor when seeing them in action for the first time. These tiny bodies were molded into something out of a comic book  or an ancient Greek statue. The strong female image is not the only impressive element about this it is the mental aspect. There is an enormous amount of mental strength and will power to attain this level of physicality. Combined with that, the muscular woman has to endure being a underdog in the fitness community that does not always embrace her presence. Ridicule and shaming from the public also becomes a challenge. However, when some learn of the magnificent performances they do, prejudices can easily be erased. Just think, these are some of the most physically powerful women on the planet.

The shocking surprise is that some female athletes do not look as strong as they really are. Weightlifters focus on strength, rather then aesthetics in spots competition. Seeing women lift twice their own body weight is a sight to behold. When they compete the audience is captivated by women that are very unique. The problem is these talented athletes are not getting enough exposure. If women had the same attention given to male athletes in the media, no one would say it is not marketable. Women’s sports can be just as interesting as their male counterpart. It needs more favorable and a supportive atmosphere to survive. No matter how dismal the conditions this does not stop women from competing and doing it well. Most importantly, they do not care what people think. That should be lauded  just as much as their athletic performance. Renee Toney a female bodybuilder claims to have the largest biceps of any woman in the world. To some this may seem unsightly or repulsive. The more enlightened are amazed that a woman with 22 inch arms is in existence.

3bec08937569894.jpg She could probably  beat many men at arm wrestling with no problem. There are not many men or women that could reach her level. People may say this is “too extreme.” This is a relative term which has numerous meanings to many fans and outside observers. A woman with any muscle may seem extreme to a person. If being extreme means you are accomplished in what you do it is a compliment. The term extreme when directed at female athletes is meant to be pejorative, but this comes from critics who do not understand or like them in the first place. For dedicated fans it is the best thing ever.

       The women sculpt physiques the are in the tradition of classical Greek sculpture. The paradigm was  normally applied to  the male body. The amazons were not depicted with large muscles in art, yet there were instances in which muscular women did appear in artwork.  Michelangelo during the Italian Renaissance did depict women with bigger physiques. What the female athlete involved in physique sports is mold her body like clay. Sculptors either mold marble or clay to produce a work. Here the female physique athlete’s own flesh is the material and her body the artwork. An artist wants to make a work that has both a unique style which has symmetry, balance, and a particular aesthetic. Bodybuilders are thinking in similar terms. Size, shape, symmetry, conditioning, and definition are important to producing a quality physique. The female body has gone through evolving ideals of what constitutes a beautiful form. The female muscle only enhances the beauty of the female form. Detractors state that muscle makes the body seem more masculine. The criticism seems unfair,mainly because it just add shape. Female bodybuilders aim for the hourglass figure by building a bigger upper body, which makes the waist seem smaller. Legs are also developed and  the posterior being a traditional beauty mark.

The problem is that most people only see the women on stage in their most vascular form. Off season shows the softness and curvaceousness of the female form. It is a wonderful fusion between the muscular build of males statues and the voluptuous figure that appears in European art. This is not androgyny; this is another paradigm of  female body shape that women are exploring. They are harbingers in the area of seeing how the female body can be manipulated, trained, and what it is capable of. This is a silent revolution that even the women do not realize they are a part of. The idea that women gain huge amounts of strength and like being strong speaks volumes to the changes in terms of gender politics. There is an artistic side to body sculpting that few people realize. The muscular woman has become an artist using her own body as a medium.

         Men’s sports get more attention and praise, but that does not mean women should be ignored. The women who decide to developed themselves physically to the highest level should have recognition. Supporters have their multiple tastes, some make the claim that women got so large that they turned many women off of weight training. It ignores the fact that women have been deliberately excluded or pressured away from sports or exercise. Such attitudes reflect the narrow views people still cling to in regards to sex and gender. Strict gender conformity insists women should all behave and act the same way. Not only that, their is a demand to look a certain way. Sexism demands that women place themselves in a subordinate position to men in all areas of life. Women who do this act of building their bodies are expressing a desire for most people : freedom. Besides the impressive bodies or athletic feats, they should be commended for resisting the ridged conformity that pressures people to think alike and be the same. Difference is a good thing and it enriches our world.  The phrase girl power has be used redundantly, yet there are women who embody that literally.  There is a new paradigm of physically powerful woman that has made an impact on sex politics and popular culture.

Words Of Praise To The Women Who Pushed Their Physiques To The Maximum

The Problem With John Mattis’ Perspective On Women In Combat

As John Mattis makes his exit as Secretary of Defense, it should be remembered  that his judgments and perspectives were not the best ones. While his resignation letter stated a support for NATO and the disapproval of removal of troops from Syria, there is one problem that will be scrutinized during his service in government. Women in combat positions has remained a controversial issue in the US military. John Mattis stated that there were too small a number to say that women in combat was effective or positive development for the US Military. Mattis made his position clear when speaking to students at the Virginia Military Institute in September of 2018. Mattis expounded further saying ” there are a few stalwart young ladies who are charging into this, but they are too few.” Then Mattis added ” clearly the jury is out on it, but what we’re trying to do is give it every opportunity to succeed if it can.” He did not seem very enthusiastic about women in combat. John Kelly who served as President’s Trump’s chief of staff made a baseless prediction that fitness standards would be lowered to accommodate women in the US military. Mattis’ statements did  not echo this extreme view, yet there seems to be doubt about success. There are numerous problems with such an assessment. It assumes that just because there are a few women involved that indicates men are just better suited for the military occupational specialty. The position sees women in combat only from the view of biological determinism. Mattis’ position ignores the data that shows women are entering combat jobs. History also shows that women have fought and died in wars before. Mattis’ perspective is limited and does not realize that the nature of warfare is rapidly changing. Sex integration within combat jobs will be a difficult process, but prejudices and low expectations must be eliminated for  the sake of success.

         When there small numbers of a certain group in a given profession, this does not automatically mean that they are less capable. Saying that there are very few female athletes or construction workers does not automatically mean women as a collective are terrible at such jobs. There are reasons why many women are not a large part of these occupations. The most obvious reason is sex discrimination. The reason many women would not have appeared in combat positions was because they were banned from it. The ban on women in combat was established in 1994 and only ended in 2013. Qualified women prior to 2013  were discriminated on the basis of their sex. Under the Obama administration this was challenged legally. Women had to do this in other professions that discriminated against them on the basis of sex. Firefighting and construction had policies prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that kept women out. Law enforcement had a similar attitude of an anti-woman bias. 

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Total numbers do not indicate which sex is better at a job. It may be an indicator of discrimination. Sometimes its not discrimination as a reason for diminutive numbers . The matter also comes down to personal choice and recruitment efforts. Women may choose to avoid these professions for a number of reasons. They may not want to take the risk, be as competitive, or family obligations take a higher priority. The reason that the wage gap remains is that women do not enter certain positions that are male dominated. Pressure and being discourage can also hinder career success. These factors are sociological. There still is a persistent belief that their are certain jobs or activities women simply should not do. Seeing as women have been kept out of certain professions one can not make general statements about which sex is better at them. A system based on meritocracy and equal opportunities allow for a high quality workforce. Mattis makes the mistake of thinking in terms of generalities. One could easily say that men are better at women at sports seeing as more men are athletes. This ignores the women who are active in sport and also how legislation as well as a change in social policy allowed them to advance.

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Title IX enabled young girls to participate in sports. These girls who continue to benefit from The Education Amendments of 1972 have found themselves becoming top athletic competitors in the Olympics. More women now are part of international competition than ever before.  This again demonstrates, when barriers are removed numbers in crease. This does not mean seeing as there are few women they are not good athletes. When applied to the US Military, this does not mean that women are horrible soldiers based on their smaller numbers. If one is trying to assess the integration of women, their performance should be examined rather than their total numbers. There should efforts to increase those numbers if  possible. Target numbers would be better than set quotas. Certainly just being male does not make you automatically a better qualified or efficient combat soldier.

        The arguments against women in combat or that it is a misguided idea normally make the argument based on biological determinism. Women they state do not have the strength, stamina, or speed to handle the physical rigors of combat. The average man has a higher natural physical fitness capacity than the average woman. However, every man and woman is different. Physical fitness is determined more than just by sex. Genetics, health condition, and somatotype are factors. Sexual dimorphism explains the biological, physiological, and anatomical differences among the human sexes. Training can raise a woman’s fitness level to a degree. Saying that biology is permanent would not be correct. Through exercise regimens, nutrition, and combat training women can be made into able soldiers.  

Even when the training is the same men gain more strength. Differences related to physiology, anatomy, and biology will influence results in the total increase in physical fitness capacity. 

Genetics can have an influence on height and body size.  This has been noted to be related to athletic abilities. Men have more muscle mass, more bone density, bigger ligaments and tendons. Higher levels of free testosterone allow for more protein synthesis enabling a higher amount of muscular hypertrophy when responding to exercise stimuli. Estrogen means that a woman’s body composition would mostly have a higher body fat percentage. The biggest factor related to success is the requirement for upper body strength. The soldier will be carrying packs, ammunition, and weapons. Women have smaller shoulders , which means less skeletal frame to house muscle. Women’s running speed is also effected by smaller lungs and heart. Wider hips mean slower speed and higher risk of injury. Seeing as men are bigger they can sustain more physical trauma compared to their female counterparts. One would assume that this would mean it is not possible for a woman to become a combat soldier. The opposite is true. It can be done with particular actions. A woman would have to be on an exercise program prior to going onto basic training. Following successful completion standards of MOS should be examined in detail to progress further. Improved combat armor and maintenance of health will prevent attrition rates in the US Military. The problem is that women are still viewed in physically demanding occupations as the weaker sex. 

It is just automatically assumed that men are better a physical tasks or jobs. This does not match reality. Which in the pictures above would you think would be better at something that requires strength ? 

Similar arguments have been made against women in law enforcement, firefighting, construction, and other male dominated occupations that require strength. All men are not suitable for combat positions either. A male of ectomorphic body type and low fitness would do poorly compared to a female mesomorphic body type and high fitness. The best technique for women to increase their strength is to engage in weight training. Utilizing compound exercises allows for various muscle recruitment. Muscular hypertrophy functions in the same manner in women compared to men. This means micro-trauma will occur in the muscle and during rest periods will grow stronger as a result of the training stimuli. Rest is as important as training. Adequate sleep aids in recovery from the training regimen. During training it is advised to rest either three to four minutes between reps to have the body part trained to recover for the exercise. Women must lift heavy to see effective results. Gradually, progressive overload should be introduced into the exercise regimen so that women can gain more strength required for a specific MOS. 

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This is the new Occupational Physical Assessment Test.  There are no male and female standards just a general assessment predictor of occupation success.

 The OPAT wants to reduce attrition rates and increase recruit career success. Based on what is known about the female body there can be an estimation of how women would do. There are only four scoring levels for the army. The deadlift and seated power throw would put women at disadvantage in comparison with men. This can be negated with strength training. Training response does seem to increase female bone and muscle mass . This may take a longer time compared to their male counterparts, who have more muscle mass to start off with. It would be easier for women to build more lower body strength compared to the upper body. The interval run also may also be effected by aerobic capacity. Aerobic power is 50% higher in males compared to females. Women have a lower amount of hemoglobin and less oxygen to activate the muscles during vigorous physical activity. The vo2max is reliant on the hearts ability to pump blood and simultaneously oxygenate blood coming back from working muscles. Oxygen carrying capacity is essential to aerobic fitness. The hardest part for women would most likely be the run and the long jump. The difference in quadriceps angle and the pelvis could be a risk for injury. ACL tears can effect men and women, but women are more susceptible to such a health hazard.Most women would be able to reach the significant scoring level with considerable effort and training. Seeing as the heavy level requires the most physical strength and speed women would still remain a minority in that MOS. 

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The US military has finally taken a more scientific and exercise physiology based approach to the training of its soldiers for combat. Examining how female athletes train for competition can also be of assistance.  Seeing as women are allowed in combat, it it time to have them register for the selective service.  It makes no sense that men have to do this, while women do not. Sex differences may complicate a draft. if a majority of women have less physical capacity than the average male, they would fall into the unqualified bracket. There is a general lack of physical fitness within the US population with obesity becoming a public health concern. Men and women would have to either go on a weight management program before going onto basic training. Then there are men and women who do not have weight issues, but do not exercise or are not in shape for particular military jobs. Fitness training for such individuals may take longer compared to those in peak physical condition or an athletic background. 

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Women have the same muscles and there is no difference at the cellular level. The amount of fast-twitch (type II) and  slow twitch muscle fibers vary depending on sex and genetics.
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The basic physiology of hemoglobin’s role in transporting oxygen. Oxygen is a vital source for tissues throughout the human body.
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Muscles are not the only contributor to strength. Bone mass and density are important. Women can not only build bone mass through strength training, but prevent diseases of the skeletal system such as osteoporosis.

Knowing how sexual dimorphism related to biology and physiology effects physical fitness can contribute to designing proper exercise programs for female recruits. One consideration has to do with hand to hand combat. A female soldier may be at a disadvantage with a male soldier in terms of a fight. The differences in male and female strength are large. The weakest male would still have more muscle mass compared to the weakest female. Training does not make the strength gap disappear. However, there is no limit to the amount of fighting skills women can learn or acquire. Assuming they are given the same and correct instruction on hand to hand combat Fighting requires more than just brute strength. The martial arts such as judo, karate, or taekwondo are designed to have various fighting styles that are either better at being offensive or defensive. Similar techniques are utilized in self-defense programs. Women must be taught to fight and be more aggressive. 

 The men are strong, but that would not automatically make them great soldiers. May be the female soldiers could teach them something or two. 

Women are not taught to defend themselves. What also has to be done in training is deprogramming some elements related to cultural behavior. Fighting and war is still seen as a male only affair when history as shown otherwise. So far, what it seems that the new assessments could be working. Women can handle combat, yet every military occupational specialty may not be gender balanced anytime soon. The Marines and the Navy SEAlS  have some of the most physically demanding requirements. Only a few women would be able to reach such levels. The higher the physical demand, the more women will strain. This does not mean there are not other opportunities in the navy, army, and air force. The military will certainly see the numbers of women in combat positions go up. 

        John Mattis when he was speaking in September was probably not aware that data showed women were increasing in numbers in MOS. Mattis cited  there being too few women in infantry ranks to make a lucid conclusion. The ban was only lifted in 2013 so making this statement seems premature. What has been noted is that at the time of Mattis’ statements 800 women were serving in combat units in the army. That includes multiple divisions ranging from infantry, cavalry, and fire support. There are 51 female infantry officers and 253 enlisted women in the infantry. A total of 17 women passed the army ranger course. There are 51 women in the ranks of the Army Reserve. August of 2018 saw only 26 enlisted Marines. Considering that the ban was lifted only a six  years ago that is better than expected. Considering that the Marines were attempting to prevent the opening of combat jobs to women in 2015, it is even more astounding. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter rejected the Marines request to hold positions for men only during the Obama administration. They could not prove that women were just not suitable for the tasks at hand. There is obvious resistance and doubt about women in combat. The Army and Marines have acknowledged that the numbers of women may remain small. The Marine Corps has a very demanding set of physical fitness requirements, which a large portion of women struggle  to meet. Under no circumstances should standards be lowered and so far, this has not occurred. 

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The few women that are present are showing women can be capable if they are held to the same standard as their male counterparts. Secretary of Defense John Mattis’ perspective seems short sighted. It may also represent a antiquated view, which is dangerous in a rapidly changing world. Mattis also stated ” we cannot do what militarily does not make sense” when addressing the Virginia Military Institute. The opposition to women being in combat is that it is action that is not necessary. There claim is there are enough men to fill such positions and women are just distractions to them. Number of men joining the military a slightly decreased, but there is a possibility there may not be enough to fill combat positions. The idea that women would distract men seems ludicrous. There may be cases of relationships emerging, but that can be countered. The US military would have to impose a strict dating policy in various branches. The rampant problems of sexual harassment and assault can be stopped with rational human resource policies. Allowing women to enter combat jobs does make sense, because it only adds to the the size and strength of the US Military. It would not be a surprise if after decades women will be having more leadership positions in the armed forces. The nature of warfare is changing with no frontline. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan saw women in combat without being part of combat jobs. That realization was what led Leon Pennetta as Secretary of State to end the prohibition of women in combat roles. It would make sense to put women in combat positions, if you get more qualified and enthusiastic soldiers. 

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U.S. Army 1st Lt. Audrey Griffith, a native of Castlerock, Colo., points out an area of interest during a force protection drill to Spc. Heidi Gerke along the perimeter of Forward Operating Base Hadrian in Deh Rawud, Afghanistan, March 18, 2013. Both women are members of the 92nd Engineer Battalion from Fort Stewart, Ga. (Photo by Australian Army WO2 Andrew Hetherington/Combined Team Uruzgan Public Affairs)
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This is Japan’s first woman female fighter pilot Misa Matsushima, Japan has been a close ally in Asia to America since the end of World War II. If our allies are seeing benefits of women in combat why are we not following the same policies ?
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Ayesha Farooq is Pakistan’s only female fighter pilot. Pakistan has challenges that come from India , the Tailban, and a number of armed groups. The US has relations with Pakistan and a number of agreements regarding counter terrorism. The relation is complicated with China seeing as the US in the middle of a trade war.

According to Mattis’ logic it would hard to say if women could be skilled scientists since their numbers are low in that field. There have been female astronauts, physicists, biologists, engineers, and doctors.  Biological arguments or pure pseudoscientific ones have been used to explain the difference. It was thought women were not as intelligent as men, yet the supporters of this belief did not acknowledge than many women were denied an opportunity for a high quality education.  When barriers are removed the numbers will increase. The amalgamation of that will not be known or accurately predicted. A recruitment program should be designed to target the female demographic. The goal should not be to make the male to female ratio  the same, rather allow for a gradual increase over time with realistic number targets. Numbers do not show anything about success or failure in the battlefield. A nation could have a large military, yet still lose wars. This is why Secretary John Mattis’ view lacks accurate analysis.  Women are going to be more involved in the US Military seeing as more career opportunities are available.  When the amount of women reach enormous size in the distant future, Mattis’ comments will only show a simplistic view of women’s combat capabilities. 

         Women have fought in combat throughout history. Although they were not officially recognized, there is a tradition of the woman warrior. The Mino warriors of Dahomey and the Onna-bugeisha of Japan demonstrated that warfare was not a male only business. During World War II women served as fighter pilots and snipers in the Soviet Union. American women were also involved in warfare. One of the forgotten facts of the American Civil War was that women disguised themselves as men to fight. The war had generated such energy to either save or dissolve the  United States. 

Cathy Williams had the distinction of being the only female buffalo  Soldier and the only woman know to serve in such a regiment. It is unfortunate that people of the present do not learn form the past. These female warriors demonstrated what they could do under unfavorable circumstances. John Mattis needs only to examine US history to know that women are capable of combat. The real shame is that such events and women in history are not discussed or mentioned in classrooms. Americans have a limited understanding of their history, which allows the country to never lean from its mistakes. These women who were harbingers to women in combat should have their history discussed with female recruits as a source of motivation. John Mattis with his narrow minded view does not look at the wider global and national reality. Women were fighters during the ancient to modern period,but were never given the same respect or recognition. Other countries are already letting women get involved  or have been allowing in combat such as India,  the UK, Canada, North Korea,  Israel, and Eritrea. This is more than just a trend it will be a major adjustment to armed forces around the world.
    John Mattis cannot be considered a major stabilizing force in the Trump White House. The mainstream media has been in panic with his exit and even more so over the withdraw from Syria. This was a wonderful move toward stopping the system of permanent warfare. The myth around Mattis is that he was a capable Secretary of State keeping the global order functional. This was not true, seeing as he was more in favor with neoconservative foreign policy. Nation building, US military presence around the world, and support for the military industrial complex have caused multiple domestic and foreign problems. He was no friend to the average soldier seeing as he made no attempt to address mental health issues among troops, sexual harassment in the US Military, or made an attempt to collaborate with the Department of Veterans Affairs for improving healthcare for troops. Under President Donald Trump women are facing extreme hostility and the military is no exception.  John Mattis and John Kelly are two men who have little regard for the female soldier.  While Mattis did not seem to interested in women in combat, it  remains unclear if progress will continue under a new Secretary of Defense. One simply cannot say the “jury is out”  in regards to women in combat.                                   

               

The Problem With John Mattis’ Perspective On Women In Combat

Dr. Mark Griffiths : Give Me Your Strength Another Look At Muscle Worship

Muscle Worship

This is another examination by the psychologist Dr. Mark Griffiths in which he expounds further on sthenolagnia. However, it should be established that he is focusing on what would be classified as a kink. Muscle worship would not be a fetish. The perspective of sexology would call sthenolagnia more so a fetish and muscle worship as a kink. Whate defines a kink is ” the unconventional sexual practices, concepts, or fantasy.” Cratolagnia normally gets confused with sthenolagnia, but there is a difference. Cratolgnia is more arousal generated from the displays of physical strength rather than actual muscle. It is possible to have both fetishes and they do generally overlap. Dr. Mark Giffiths acknowledges this is has very little serious academic investigation. There are a number of reasons for this. The first is that many men and women may not be willing to be open about their sex or fetish practices. Doing surveys would keep a level on anonymity, yet participants may not even be honest in their answers. The problem also is that people confuse a fetish with paraphilia. This creates a stigma that makes people less wiling to discuss sex or sexuality. Gathering research data would be difficult. An experiment would be very reliant on information on sources that are not as credible. There may be a general lack of interest in the area of human sexual behavior in psychology, because some may think it does not deserve serious investigation. Human sexuality is part of human behavior. Psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung explored sex and sexuality at a time when those subjects were too controversial to discuss. Human sexual behavior differs among individuals and can change over time.

        Muscle worship differs from general mixed wrestling. What Dr. Griffiths uses for an explanation comes from a Wikipedia entry. Wikipedia is not as reliable compared to others sources due to the fact anyone can edit them. The entry states “muscle worship is a social behaviour, usually with a sexual aspect (a form of body worship), in which a participant, the worshipper, touches the muscles of another participant, the dominator, in sexually arousing ways, which can include rubbing, massaging, kissing, licking, “lift and carry”, and various wrestling holds.” Its not like wrestling cannot be a part of muscle worship, but sessions such as these involve limited physical activity. This is why some female bodybuilders prefer to do muscle worship rather than wrestling session due to the limited physical effort involved.

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These are examples of session wrestling. They could either be fantasy, competitive, or semi-competitive. 

Muscle worship is more about feeling the woman and her muscles. It is not about the demonstration of physical strength, rather admiration of the body. The strange part about this definition it does not mention that arm wrestling is sometimes part of both session wrestling and muscle worship. What also is part of the definition mentioned in Dr. Mark Griffiths’ entry talks about the roles involved in this kink : “The dominator is almost always either a bodybuilder, a fitness competitor, or wrestler, an individual with a large body size and a high degree of visible muscle mass.” This can be expanded to include other women who have just physically fit. Women who are not involved in  strength sports also participate in muscle worship. Session wrestling can involve muscle worship. This means women who participate can do a few wrestling matches and then add muscle worship to the session. A woman does not have to be extremely muscular  to do muscle worship, rather just have enough athleticism to add to the experience. Some women do not even have athletic experience who offer such services. Fantasy wrestling may have a small or thin woman acting as if she can overpower larger men. 

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Michelle Tuggle is big and strong enough to wrestle men for real. These matches would be semi-competitive or competitive.
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This woman is smaller than the man compared to the much larger women. The point is not the wrestling, rather the admiration of muscle and athleticism. This would be fantasy, because it is obvious if there were a real match she would not be able to beat the man.
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Figure competitors, physique athletes, fitness models, and bikini competitors get involved in muscle worship and session wrestling.

There also is another problem when developing a precise definition. The woshippers are defined in a stereotypical manner : ” he worshipper is often, but not always, skinnier, smaller, and more out of shape”. It is surprising the entry does not mention schmoes who are hardcore fans of female muscle and female bodybuilding. Such men can come from all walks of life, ethnic backgrounds, and cultures.Schmoes  are different from regular female muscle fans. They are truly devoted to the sport and like the most muscular women. There are some men who have more of a desire to follow muscular women than others. Men who are deeply involved in fitness may be the biggest schmoes of them all. The common stereotype is that male bodybuilders only like women they can physically dominate or control. The opposite seems of this seems to be the case. The idea that your significant other enjoys your passion may be an attractive attribute to men in the bodybuilding sports. It almost seems obvious that such men would gravitate to these women. They have a similar interest and are present in there common environment of the gym.  

There is no wrestling involved in this case, so it would be classified a muscle worship. 

There is also relation to another type of fetish which includes erotic wrestling. Muscular women, female athletes, and average wrestlers test their strength against male opponents in mixed wrestling matches. Since the rise of the internet, there has been an increase in erotic wrestling.   Once more it seems that such fetishes and kinks overlap. There is a point in the study of such behaviors just becomes a debate in semantics.  These definitions and descriptions could change women more information is discovered. 

        There are common misconceptions about men and women involved in muscle worship. Muscle worshipers are not only males, but can be females as well. They could be of various sexual orientations. It is possible that there is overlap with sadomasochism, yet  pain is not the goal of muscle worship and session wrestling. Dr Griffiths relies on a wikipedia entry that may not be very reliable. The text reads : ” The amount of forceful domination and pain used in muscle worship varies widely, depending on the desires of the participants. The client’s intent is not to be pulverized and the wrestler does have limits to what is acceptable. The wikipedia entry expounds further: ” Sometimes, the dominator uses his or her size and strength to pin a smaller worshiper, forcing the worshipper to praise the dominator’s muscles, while in other cases, the worshiper simply feels and compliments the muscles of a flexing dominator. ” This may be the case, however some muscle worship does not always revolve around out right domination. There are instances in which their is mutual gratification not based around force. It is no surprise that women engage in session wrestling or muscle worship find it amusing as well. 

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Athletes who do not have sponsorship issues or income related barriers still offer sessions. The error in studying this phenomenon is that women do not get sexual gratification out of this kink. The idea is that women are passive receivers in sexual interactions or urges. Women sexual behavior may just fluctuate more compared to men. Muscle worship does not involve sexual intercourse, rather its purpose is to at least generate arousal. Muscle worship is not classified as prostitution, because that implies that there is a fee and business for sexual intercourse. Dr . Mark Giffiths states that their a both mainstream and non-mainstream sexual behaviors. Using these terms complicates concepts of sexual behavior. These behaviors are hard to determine which are mainstream or subcultural  due to the fact there would have to be normal standard of sexual behavior. Traditionally, psychology relied on surveys to understand sexual behavior. What can be found is that various individuals have different types of sexual kinks and fetishes. it may be that there is no “normal sex life” or “normal sexual behavior.” Paraphilia is an extreme psychological disorder in which arousal is caused by activities that are  dangerous or harmful. Female muscle lovers are typically seen by outside observers  as deviants or sexual predators.  Such a view is a product of ignorance and bias. Most muscle worshipers are average people with no disorder or violent tendencies. 

        Muscle worship does not even fit the definition of a mental disorder in the context of abnormal psychology. Abnormal psychology can be defined as the study of unusual behavior and its patterns from a clinical context. Emotions and thought are also taken into account related to mental state.  This branch of psychology still has rigorous debate about what is merely an idiosyncratic behavior and aberrant or dysfunctional behavior. Doing sessions could hardly be considered an aberrant behavior. The only way it could be dysfunctional is that in interferes with daily life. Muscle worship can be very expensive, so this would not be an addiction for the common people. Liking muscular women does not even count as a mental disorder based of simple definitions. It is just another preference. 

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BrigitaBrezovac_BD03   There are abnormality indicators that range from mild to severe according to the clinical approach.  the first indicator is distress. This either projects itself as anxiety or levels of constant unease. Maladpativeness refers to when a individual cannot cope with their environment. Irrationality is another indicator, but this may be hard to identify. However, behaviors such as conserving with people who are not there or constant rambling may demonstrate some form of mental breakdown. Unpredictability may also serve as a symptom of development of abnormal psychological behavior. Being inconsistent or erratic in personal action may be a warning sign. Unconventionality is another symptom, which describes undesirable behavior. Just being unusual or quirky does not count as unconventionality. Random screaming or belligerent behavior  could be considered unconventionality. The challenge is that psychopathology can take numerous forms, so just having one indicator does not indicate a mental disorder. Such a diagnosis is not very reliable or scientific method based. This is why psychology and psychiatry common under intense scrutiny. Biopsychology takes a different approach by using the study of the nervous system and neuroscience to explain psychological disorders. Social influences should not be ignored, but this seems to be a better method from a biomedical perspective. Loving female muscle, doing sessions or muscle worship, or having sexual attraction to them would hardly fall into any of these categories. 

         One aspect that Dr.Mark Griffiths forgot to mention is the sub-categories of kinks that are a part of the overall female muscle fetish. Facesitting, ball busting, lift, and carry as well as  scissor fetishes can also be seen in female muscle fetish material.   Facesitting involves a partner sitting on the face of  another. Facesitting can be classified as erotic humiliation. When this practice is done in the female muscle world, it is done for the sake of admiration of women’s glutes. 

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This should not be a surprise men take interest in women’s backsides. Traditionally, the buttocks has been considered a beauty mark for women. Facesitting is nothing new or a kink that emerged in the 21st century. Henrich Lossow was an illustrator and painter during the 19th century known for his genre work. What was not entirely known was that he produced works that featured facesitting and other fetishes. These fetishes, kinks, and numerous sexual behaviors may have been around as early as humanity itself. Animals have mating  behaviors, rituals or practices in nature.  It still remains unknown what archaic humans, neanderthals, and denisovans did in relation to sexual behavior. Ball busting can also be part of the female muscle fetish. This may be less popular due to the possible health risk involved. The testicles of the male participant are either kicked, punched, or squeezed. Doing such a practice risks testicular trauma or permanent damage. 

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This may be something that even women want to avoid. Female session wrestlers realize there is a major physical power difference between their clients and do not want to risk them getting injured. If a session wrestler gets too many negative reviews among clients, this could effect business. The female muscle community is a small and close knit group. Information can spread quickly. Some scholars note that the business aspect of it can be also classified at different levels. Dr. Mark Giffifths notes from one source he used : “a 2008 paper by Dr. Niall Richardson (2008) in the Journal of Gender Studies also made some interesting (and important) distinctions between muscle worship and two other erotic practices often associated with bodybuilding: ‘hustling’ and ‘sponsorship fantasies.’ Hustling just involves a female bodybuilder doing sessions and muscle worship as their primary business. They may not even compete anymore, but still maintain their impressive physiques. Doing sessions and muscle worship generate more money compared to them competing. The sponsorship system operates if  on the basis that if a female athlete can get promotion by a supplement company or  wealthy individual an athlete can reduce the financial burdens of competition. The book Chemical Pink  wildly exaggerated this element of female bodybuilding. The sport and the women are often misunderstood. The attraction to them is even more of an enigma to outside observers. 

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Lift and carry is also a part of the female muscle fetish. Some men are curious to see how strong these women are. One way to test this is to see if they can carry a client for a certain period of time. It may not even be about women attempting to compete the lift. Some clients get exhilaration women physical strain and struggle under the weight of their bodies. For a client, see a woman demonstrate her physical skills and prowess is the most arousing thing ever. Seeing as these kinks and practices are misunderstood advocates are very furtive about them. It is not known just how many men and women are involved in such kinks. What complicates examination is the overlap of connotations and how they can be so closely related.  

       Female muscle growth is mentioned, yet it cannot be considered a part of female worship itself. This is the more artistic side of the female muscle fandom. Videos, art, and  writing. Muscle worship is not fiction, but it is often portrayed in female muscle art and stories. There has been rapid expansion of this type of non-mainstream type of art since the rise of the internet and social media. Female muscle growth only constitutes a section of the female muscle art aspect of the subculture. Videos featuring muscular women have become prevalent with streaming sites such as Youtube or Dailymotion. Fans can either edit videos or produce something original. Mixed wrestling video sites are so ubiquitous that Google provides thousands o search results. There are more men into muscular women than previously thought. Such traffic to these websites are not merely people stumbling on to them by mistake or random curiosity. 

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Animated Muscle Women Wiki collects all the scenes and images of instances in which muscular women appear in cartoons.
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Awefilms.com  features female bodybuilders posing, wrestling, and has members only photo sections.
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Athletes both have their own websites and social media, which connect fans directly to content at anytime.

There is a large growing fandom, that extends beyond mere fetish. It was in its prototypical stages in the 1980s when professional female bodybuilding got mainstream exposure. When the World Wide Web emerged thanks to Tim Berners Lee in 1989 a revolution began. The internet was going to be a major entertainment medium and commercial enterprise. Subcultures would get exposure to a wider audience. The female muscle fandom would thrive from the 1990s to present. It many ways it saved female bodybuilding from complete extinction. The image of the physically powerful woman is just a click away. Female muscle growth has become more than just an erotic based entertainment; it has evolved into detailed art form with storytelling. The Sex and the University website only reveals the basic elements of such fmg. There is of course expansion fetishism that overlaps with it ( breast and giantess fetish). However, fmg does not only focus on biceps. Depending on the author, certain body parts are emphasized more. The posterior, legs, and abdomen are common highlighted areas in fmg. Some stories are one shot and others could be longer serials. 

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This is an example of female muscle growth that focuses on the whole body rather than just the biceps.
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Quadra Blu created by Lyman Dally
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Stain Steele is a crime fighting female bodybuilder created by David C. Matthews.

These muscular female characters appear in mostly webcomics.  Quadra Blu and Satin Steele are examples of the female muscle and fmg art genre. Sometimes the female muscle growth happens by normal means rather than a supernatural or scientific blunder. These characters have more developed personalities and longer storylines. Among dedicated readers and fans of female muscle they are very recognizable.  The females in these stories could either be antagonists or protagonists. Popular  mainstream cartoon characters are even given muscular physiques in female muscle art. Fmg can sometimes appear in mainstream cartoons. Scenes could be brief or last an entire episode. There is a common theme that seems to be present in most fmg stories. There is either an equalization or role reversal of the stereotypical  power relationship between men and women. Certain scenarios are not reversal or equalization; its complete femdom. Such storylines have women gaining more physical strength than males and establishing female supremacy. A common misconception is that patriarchy remains due to the fact men have more physical strength to impose their will on females. Really the subjugation of women is based on limited rights, inequality in employment, education, property ownership, and legal protection. Here the fantasy makes it reversed in which males are under the rule of females, based on brute force. 

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Fmg appears in a mainstream cartoon Totally Spies . This demonstrates female supremacy because Alex becomes stronger than the strongest men she fights.

   

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Female supremacy involves males being dominated physically by women.
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Many times men do not resist in mixed wrestling videos. Viewers normally may just think its fake, strength feats included. It is obvious women of this strength and power could hurt someone if they were really trying.

Stories or art do not always feature women in such a bullying or oppressive manner. It could be a mutual exchange of power in some plots. The reason behind these desires for femdom and female supremacy could astronomical. Power can be seen as an attractive attribute. Physical strength is just one example of  power, which was seen as a positive attribute in men. It has only been recently that this is also attractive in women. The indirect influence of amazon feminism could as be reason for this sub-fetish category. Men just may like the idea of having roles reversed and not being in charge. It is no secret that men in high powered positions in business, politics, and law engage in sessions. This may act as some form of stress reduction. There may also be the belief that being with a stronger woman will make you a stronger man. Or the simplest explanation is that men just have an attraction to various types of women rather the the mainstream beauty standard. 

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The muscular woman presents another beauty paradigm. It is not a traditional one, but in away it is a metaphor for women’s growing power in society. The physically strong woman does have a place in various cultures. Amazons and Valkyries were present in mythology. Historical figures such a Joan of Arc or Nzinga have been notable figures as well as heroine archytypes. Popular culture has a plethora of female heroes such as Wonder Woman, Storm, and the Black Widow. The difference with the muscular woman put into this equation is that never in a point in human history have women developed their bodies to this level.    Maybe female muscle growth captures both the fear, excitement, and arousal of the new generation of superwomen. 

       Certain conclusions can be made based  on what is known. Female muscle worship is not dangerous or harmful. Muscle worship would not count as a paraphilia based on the simple denotation. This would not even be worth an entry into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The  DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The problem with this manual is that what were once considered mental disorder are now longer a part of it. Homosexuality was once in the DSM and removed in 1974. This represented the intolerance present in the medical profession and psychiatry. The DSM has been criticized for its methods and possible cultural bias. The National Institute of Mental Health criticized the DSM-5 for not having a more vigorous scientific approach. Psychology and psychiatry just like the other sciences  are subject to debate. For a position to be accepted as scientific fact it must be able to be reproduced through experiment and have the results replicated. Dr. Mark Griffiths area of interest is addiction and gambling. Is it possible that one could be addicted to female muscle ? There is the possibility if it hinders daily life or function and there are withdraw symptoms. There is little data which suggests that there are men with extreme female muscle addiction. Muscle worship is not a medical condition or a mental disease, rather a kink linked to a broader fetish. The origins are unknown, yet it is clear that human sexuality and behavior is much more complex than previously thought.    

Dr. Mark Griffiths : Give Me Your Strength Another Look At Muscle Worship

Spot Me Girl: Four Ways Women Are Way Fitter Than Men

Four Ways Women Are Fitter

While it should be noted that men being “physically superior to women” does not have basis in physiology or biological science”, women do have their advantages. The text notes some important elements of fitness that women can use to their sports performance. The problem is that the article makes the claim “women can beat men in more ways than we could have imagined.” What could have been a rational discussion about exercise physiology devolves into a battle of the sexes argument. Men and women are physiologically, biologically, and anatomically different which explains why the physical fitness capacity differs in athletic performance. Nature does not designate “inferior” or “superior” species. As stated in the introduction “some men consider themselves biologically and genetically superior when it comes to competing with women in physical tasks.” The myth of biological superiority has been discredited, however it is rare that men and women compete in physical tasks with one another. Sports are still separated by sex and the physically demanding occupations retain more in the sector of the workforce. Technology and science have leveled the playing field making it so that employment was not based on brute strength or manual labor. The industrial revolution brought this change and has continued since. Women can compete with men in economics, politics, law, and business yet there remains sexual dimorphism which prevents direct physical competition in tasks that require strength and speed. It seems the article takes a staunch third wave feminist approach to science : ” read this article with all your attention since you might need to bring up some points the next time some guy talks about men being physically fitter than their counterparts. ” Some statements are clearly misleading to fit into a particular ideology. Fitness can vary among individuals  depending on sex, age, genetics, somatotype, training regimen,  and nutrition. Men have a higher physical fitness capacity. There are some women who believe that physical  differences between the sexes are socially based. Limited scientific literacy  and a extreme sense of gender equality that equates sameness with equal worth is a driver of this. Having a full understanding of human anatomy and biology can challenge misinformation.

        If one were to determine which sex is fitter there needs to be a definition of physical fitness. It can generally be defined as ” the ability to carry out tasks under fatigue .” The components include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, muscular endurance,  and speed. Physical fitness encompasses a wide range of activities. These indicators differ among the sexes. The reason for this may be in the millions of years of human evolution. Differences in size, power, and even aggression level are related to the natural history of our primate species. Competitiveness may even differ in the sexes based on some elements of biology. However, motivation and mindset is just as critical to athletic performance. This is why sports psychology as become more important to athletes success.

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Cardiorespiratory Endurance – Women have smaller lungs and hearts meaning less oxygen getting to muscle tissue.
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Muscular Strength – Women ‘s bodies contain less muscle and a different body composition.
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Muscular Endurance – still debated but it appears that women have more muscular endurance due to more type I muscle fiber.
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Speed – A wider pelvis and the quadriceps angle reduces women’s running speed.

   Exercise physiology attempts to examine the function of the human body and the organ systems to design specific training regimens. Some aspects of the psychological and physical portions of competition do not differ entirely among the sexes.  It appears that men tend to have more advantages in sports that require explosive power and upper body strength. Weightlifting records demonstrate this advantage. Flexibility women have an advantage over men. Seeing gymnastics  the difference works in women’s favor. The average woman is not fitter than the average man. The fittest woman would not outperform the fittest man. There can be overlap  depending on sample size. The fittest women can equal or surpass untrained males.

      The study that is cited does not show that women beat men in physical tasks. It was a study in longevity. Published on RT the title reads “Battle of  the Sexes : Scientists Prove Women are Stronger Than Men .” The report was not saying women were physically stronger than men, rather they lived longer due to genetics. This type of strength is durational. According to Eurostat, in the EU countries women outlive men by 5.5 years. The study was conducted by the University of Otago, but it did not say this means women can beat men physically. There are other factors which contribute to men having shorter lives. Dangerous risk taking, hazardous work, predilection for violent aggressive behavior , and poor maintenance of health contribute to reduced life expectancy. It appears from the studies mutations that were harmful seemed to pass to sons from their mothers rather than their daughters. Girls  may be immune from harmful genes, but boys may not have that production. What it could mean is that boys could be more vulnerable to heart, bone, nerve, and muscle problems. What can be suggested from this research is that life span is part genetic and environmental.  When this was cited it does not really contribute to the position of the author. The study only examined fruit flies and fish. To have a better understanding of the difference in lifespan among the sexes analyzing chimpanzees would make mores sense seeing as humans have a close genetic similarity. This does not mean men and women have the same strength levels. There is a point in which physical fitness capacity is at the same level.

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From birth to age 13, girls have the same physical fitness capacity as boys. The endocrine system changes brought about by puberty give men a strength spurt. 

Contrary to popular belief,boys are not stronger than girls in youth.  This is why it seems ludicrous to have physical education classes be different for girls and boys. Hormones have an effect on physical strength a fitness marker. This is not the only fitness marker that changes. Aerobic fitness changes dramatically. Although women can build muscle, the size of the heart and lungs do not change through training. This means a woman will have a lower Vo2max compared to her male counterpart. Women benefit from training relative to starting point. Having less strength and speed put through training the female body can be stronger from its untrained state. Men have higher natural strength due to size and endocrinology. So, it only appears that they benefit more from a training regimen than women, but both sexes can see equal benefits.

On average men are stronger, but should be remembered there is variation in human populations. It seems unlikely than a woman would of average strength would able to beat a man of high strength. A physically active woman can easily do it to unfit men or average men. 

The fitness mention in the RT article referenced is discussing another type of  fitness. Genetic fitness in nature refers to the propagation of certain traits by natural selection. It does not mean the physically strongest will dominate. If that physically strong organism does not produce offspring in a sense it has failed a test of survival. What happens in an ecosystem is not exact “survival of the fittest” rather the acclimation to environments, sex selection, and the spreading of genes. Women do appear to have strength in longevity, but that comes with a price.  Risks for getting dementia, cancer,  or heart disease increase with age. Unlike the sensational tile, women are not stronger than men, but they are survivors.

        Women have an advantage in terms of flexibility. There should be a correction here in the text when it claims “women usually have less muscle mass than men and hence joints have better mobility and range of motion.” The total muscle mass does not have an impact on flexibility. The reason women may be more flexible is related to joint structure and connective tissue composition. Having less muscle or more muscle would not impact flexibility. What matters is if a person trains for it. This is why a sedentary person would be less flexible than a person who is physically active. It was a common myth that weightlifting would make a person less flexible, but this has been proven false. Building muscle or lifting would not reduce flexibility.

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A female bodybuilder could be just as flexible as a gymnast. It depends on the training they do to increase such a fitness marker. 

Women’s flexibility gives them an advantage in sports like gymnastics. While the article cites that yoga and stretching are beneficial to flexibility it also contributes to fitness in a way that is not normally recognized.  Blood circulation can be improved to other areas of the body. Some fitness experts suggest engaging in stretching should be done for an underdeveloped muscle group. This may enhance nutrient transfer to the muscles by means of the blood stream. Flexibility can change with age. As people get older and if they do not exercise fitness decreases. The elasticity of muscle tissue also is a factor in how flexible a person is. Range of motion can be determined by the musculoskeletal system and nerve pathways of the human body. Some people may actually be born more flexible. Not all joints are meant to be flexible.    Synarthrodial joints are not designed to be having certain ranges of motion. Diathrodial joints provide the greatest range of motion. The reason women may have this advantage in terms of flexibility could have to due with pregnancy. The female body goes through major biological and physical changes with may explain the reason for diathrodial joints acclimating in a certain way.

            Women may also have a benefit in muscular endurance. Fatigue describes how much an exercise can be performed until  the muscle exhausts itself. Women’s muscle may be more resistant to fatigue compared to that of men. Women may not be able to reach the same level of  strength, but this means they could last longer during an exercise session. Higher recovery and being more fatigue resistant  would make a training session easier . It would be assumed that men should be able to beat women in this physical fitness indicator. However, the muscle fiber type should be examined to give a full explanation.

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The muscle fibers have varying  mitochondrial content. The mitchondria has often been described as a cell power center. The type I muscle fibers are slow twitch compared to type II muscle fibers. This relates to the example given by the text. A man would be able to lift more weight in comparison, but asked to continue for a particular duration women would endure in the session. Women’s slow twitch muscle fiber advantage can be explained physiologically. The mitochondria produce adenosine triphosphate, which then enables muscle contraction. Type I muscle fibers contain more myoglobin. They can produce their own energy, yet are inadequate for great amounts of force generation. Their activation threshold is low, but when they are unable to generate force type II muscle fibers assist. Fast twitch muscle fibers have two classification types. Fast twitch IIa are oxidative glycolytic. They require oxygen to convert glycogen into ATP.  Type IIb are more reliant on having ATP stored in the cell itself. That type would be also referred to as fast glycolytic. Phastic muscles are the ones that serve the role of enabling movement of the body. Fast twitch fibers generate more force in a minimal amount of time. It is now clear why women can hold isometric contractions longer. Relating to muscular endurance women may have a higher fitness marker.

          Women have the ability to burn more fat and fewer carbohydrates during exercise. This does provide help to improving physical fitness capacity. Yet, it should be no surprise. Women’s bodies contain higher fat levels than men, no matter what the somatotype is. The slimmest or the most muscular woman still maintain higher levels of body fat.

Compared to men of similar body types and weight, women would have a higher fat percentage. 

The reason women have a higher body fat percentage is to maintain ovulation. Menstrual cycle health is important to the female athlete. When estrogen lowers too much endocrine function in the female body becomes disordered. Some women could experience amenorrhea  or what is collectively known as the female athlete’s triad. Such issues can easily be avoided with knowledge of female biology and health. The reason women may be burning more fat is that they have more of it to lose. This may also explain why it also appears that women make enormous strength gains compared to their starting point in a fitness regimen. If the female body had lower levels of strength to begin with, when seen in a mathematical representation it would look exaggerated.

This is from a study that examine men and women’s gains in strength from weight training over a certain period. Although the men were stronger than the women it demonstrated that women saw a larger percentage increase in strength. 

Women burn fewer carbohydrates during exercise sessions, which enable longer training time. Although men would have an easier time losing weight, women could train longer to reach that goal. However, losing weight involves more than the consideration of sex hormones. Diet, exercise, and consistency must be taken into account. There is a tendency to regain weight, mainly because people revert back to their eating habits prior to the fitness program. Then methods that do not work will ensure failure. Women normally opt to use a treadmill, think that is the best way to eliminate fat. Weight training for women is very effective. Running on a treadmill can improve cardiovascular fitness, may not be they best way to burn fat. The more muscle one builds the easier it is to burn fat. If a person is trying to lose weight it may not be their genetics or lack of will power that is preventing them. Simply put, they may be using an incorrect method. This would be women’s greatest physical advantage. 

       Estrogen has  benefits. Both men and women have sex hormones, but they vary among them. Estrogen may protect women from heart attacks and strokes. Cardiovascular protection could have a basis in endocrinology. Nitric oxide allows for vascular flexibility. Without this it would make the circulatory system vulnerable to high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. Estrogen may act as an antioxidant. What happens is estrogen may  prevent the oxidation  low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This type of cholesterol is responsible for cardiovascular disease.  High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol is boosted which is protective. This seems more like a health benefit as compared to a fitness benefit. There is a general benefit to women in terms of cardio vascular health, but estrogen does not make women run faster.  There is one fitness related benefit of estrogen. It maintains women’s bone density. Strong bones are needed for good health and mobility. 

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Although there is still more to learn about the effect on testosterone levels on athletic performance, little is known about estrogen’s role. The reason women may not be performing to their full potential is because they are not given full examination. The majority of exercise physiology and sports science studies are focused on men. Only with time can athletes and scientists get a full understanding of the human body. 

           This text did not show four ways women were fitter than men. It was more like three physical advantages related to biology and endocrinology. Looking at the major fitness markers muscular strength, endurance, speed, and flexibility men overall have a higher fitness capacity. Higher bone density, bigger tendons, and ligaments also contribute to greater strength. The difference is size related to sexual dimorphism gives men an edge in fitness. However, this is flexible. Every man is not stronger than every single woman. This is just an average. The female athlete is clearly stronger than many men. The male is thought of as being physically superior, but this is not biological truth. There could be in sports performance overlap between samples of males and females. Women have physical advantages that are either overlooked or ignored in studies. There is no reason to deny difference or turn this into a battle of the sexes debate. A genuine scientific investigation should be welcomed; not an attempt to prove which sex is better or promoting an image of no biological difference. When it comes to sports performance, just being strong and fast is not enough. Skill is essential, which both men and women can master on an equal basis.    

Spot Me Girl: Four Ways Women Are Way Fitter Than Men