General Blogging Tips

Starting a blog is a laborious project. There are many considerations for those who wish to do so. These are some general guidelines to a person with an interest in writing and posting it for people to read. The process should be constantly evolving and making gradual improvements. This means experimenting with new ideas or techniques. Writing is essential and can be the key to your blog’s success. Layout and content are also critical elements. Do not expect immediate results from your efforts. It could take a number of years for visitation to increase to your blog. Planning before actually launching also make the process more organized. Starting is normally the most difficult part. Subject matter is essential and it is critical that it is a topic that sparks your interest. Do not be afraid to try creative experiments. Some attempts  may be successful others may not. These observations are a combination techniques and methods  that have been gathered over the years since this blog was started in 2014.

        When attempting to initiate a blog there should be an outline phase. This can either be done in a notebook or written on your computer. Before any writing is stated subject matter and topics should be selected. When making a choice, it should be a topic that you have an interest or fascination with. The more passionate you are about a topic or idea the easier it is to write about. If it is a subject that is either rare, unknown, or controversial it only enriches the substance of the blog. The subject of women with muscle and women in sports generates many opinions and reactions. This provides an immense amount of material for writing. Scope is also an element that must be considered. A narrow range many not provide as much content as a focused one. This can easily be solved by categorizing your blog posts into menu sections. The flaw with that is that readers could have potential information overload. Another pivotal part of the planning process is to articulate what is the mission or goal of the blog.

These women have some fascinating stories about why and how they got to where they are. 

It should be a lucid statement revealing what the blog is about. If it is not elucidated then visitors may leave and never return to the blog. There may be some occasions users will do a quick browse to understand what type of blog it is. Doing this may not be enough to get the visitor to stay. The general mission statement also helps summarize the whole blog.  It is a good practice to scribble ideas down so when you actually are ready to publish it is organized. Depending on what blogging platform or site you are organizing, make it so that it is simple to navigate for visitors. If possible make or either use an image as a site logo. This can be your signature, which visitors can remember.

Women have progress far in professional sports. Considering their entry into profession sports is recent that makes the progression even more amazing. This phenomenon has not been studied as much.  

Design choices depend on what is aesthetically pleasing to the producer of the blog. It does not have to be incredibly fancy or colorful. Sometimes the most simple design and still look nice to a viewer.  Outlining can help make creating a blog less stressful.

        Writing follows a structure. Essays function on a thesis, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The best arguments revolve around facts and data. However, it is how information is presented to the reader, which makes it most effective. If the text is too didactic  it becomes dry and dull. If writing on a blog becomes overly sensational then it resembles a tabloid lacking substance or depth. There should be a level of enthusiasm projected in the writing with a combination of substantive information. The thesis is the opening statement and the position one is arguing. Thesis by definition is “a theory put forth as a premise that can be proven.” From this stage of developing a thesis, the body paragraphs will follow in the essay structure. When selecting sources it is best to use books, websites, or newspaper articles. These can be either primary or secondary source materials. The more sources the better quality of written work. The conclusion gives a synopsis and also makes the final point to the argument. Writing does not have to follow this exact structure. Some posts can be short others a little longer. This also depends on the topic. The writing for a blog can either be formal or informal. Do not be afraid to try something either humorous or controversial. However, one should be mindful of what they write and how it is presented. Free speech is an excellent concept which allows various forms of expression, but it does not give one the right to advance an agenda of hate or falsehoods.  Comments should be welcomed, but if they are just meant to be bullying or disparage a particular group then they should be deleted. It is unfortunate that civil conversation in many regards had become extinct, especially online.  Closed minded people normally react in a negative way to new ideas or people different from themselves. They constantly may write negative comments and it is best that their responses be deleted. If they want to share their opinions or convictions they should start one of their own. Do not let them use your blog as a platform to promote themselves.

While there may be less than pleasant responses, this does not mean all criticism should be silenced. Constructive criticism should be used as a form of guidance to future improvement. If a reader has a suggestion, take that into account.  The quality of writing is what will make the blog a success and constant adjustment is necessary. Besides expression of ideas, audio and visual content is helpful.

       Photography and pictures can add to the quality of a blog. Writing can be enhanced more so with visuals. Selection of photos is also important if one is trying to make prove an axiom. Sometimes a photo is more powerful than  words. A great photographer captures the emotion and passion of the moment through a lens. The wonderful aspect about the internet is that there are millions of photographs at a user’s finger tips. These photographs can either be professional, personal,  or candid shots. They encompass all elements of life from work, daily life, and general pastimes. There has to be some thought in which photos will be selected for a post. It also helps to find photographs that are rare, which can be a special treat to readers.

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Photography can capture a wide range of human emotion. Here you can see Sally Pearson overcome with it after realizing she won a gold medal.
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This is an example of a professional photograph. It is not capturing the action in the moment, but forming a controlled environment. Asha Hadley  shown above is seen posing in a light pink and white colored room.
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Capturing movement in an action photo is not about controlling the setting. It is about documenting a specific moment.

The rare photographs are historical documentations. They provide evidence of past occurrences they people would not easily believe. Besides written documents, artifacts,  and oral traditions, photography also is a pivotal primary source material.  The discovery of new information allows for historical revision of the narrative. The idea of women being involved in sports or some form of physical activity is nothing new. There were cases in which they did participate, but were restricted due to the cultural mores depending on the time period. Photographs also become one more piece of evidence of the past and what it was like. Preservation is important for future generations.

Another element for selection of photos relates to demographics. There is problem with lack of representation of non-white people in media. If you are going to have a blog and want it viewed by global audiences there needs to be diversity. This should not be mere tokenism that is commonly seen in popular media. Doing this allows for expansion of audience. When choosing photographs do not just select pictures of people of the same ethnic, religious, or cultural group. This is a global society; it is time to start representing it as one. When you write understand there are billions of people across the globe with internet access. They are of numerous ethnic, religious, cultural, and national backgrounds. Speaking to their experience will gain their attention. Photo selections should not be done at random, rather a contemplative decision should be made whether it enhances the blog.

       Adding videos can also increase readership. This is more a challenge than selecting photos. There are enough public domain photos that avoid copyright restrictions. Videos if embedded from another channel on a streaming site and either be deleted or disappear. The best option would be to have your own account on Youtube, Vimeo, or Dailymotion. As long as the video is being used for educational purposes and the user is not making a profit of or taking credit for the material, it falls under fair use. Be sure to check the terms of services requirements for posting videos. The great part about videos is that they can be stand alone posts. Interviews and segments of  certain events can entertain readers. It is optional if a writer wants to put text with it. Some videos may need further explanation in a wider context. This is done to demonstrate relevance to the subject matter and prevent confusion. Rare archival footage would require further elucidation to the reader. If it has no audio, then it will leave the reader perplexed to what is its purpose relative to the site. Videos can be stand alone posts, although they can be used to enhance mostly text based posts. An interview, audio file, or news clip can add so much to a written post. Some may actually be more responsive to audio-visual material.

       Try something different with your blog. Posts do not always have to be serious. There can be a level of humor. This can be a relief in a world that is filled with nothing but violence and despair. A little break from bad news can be refreshing. Adding jokes or popular memes can draw some attention. Producing a blog is just not providing information; it is providing entertainment. Thinking from this perspective, the writer becomes a type of entertainer. Experiments in writing and production can either be a success or a failure. This does not mean there should be no attempts at different approaches.

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The memes and motivational posters above are examples of adding some comedy to your blog. The content should be multifaceted. Informative, comedic, and entertainment can make it a more enriching site.

      The other consideration is deadlines. This is difficult due to producing high quality works in a certain amount of time. Start off keeping realistic deadlines. If posting material once a month works, start off with that. Doing something rushed will often result in low quality work. This does not mean writing produced in a fast manner cannot be high quality. Once a writer is satisfied with their work they should publish it. There should be a dedicated effort not to keep going back and editing posts. This should only be done if a part of information is incorrect or there is a grammatical error. There should be an editing process that is done before posting. Avoid overwhelming yourself with trying to meet deadlines. Quantity does not equal quality and it creates another issue. New readers may have trouble keeping up with posts and may not visit as frequently. Information overload can discourage people from exploring certain sites. It may be best to wait a few days between posts. Sometimes there are materials and news that you want to share immediately. There is nothing wrong with multiple posts,but more is not always better. Eventually, you will realize when is the right time to add a new post. Keeping these general guidelines in mind anyone can produce a blog.

General Blogging Tips

Kristy Hawkins Interview (2017)

Kristy Hawkins speaks about her experiences in bodybuilding and her ventures into powerlifting. Kristy also discusses chemistry and her work in the chemical engineering industry. She also discusses how she balances her professional career and he powerlifting. Kristy said that she has learn much discipline. Kristy Hawkins also broke records in deadlift and squat. Kristy now trains with Dan Green and the results have been very effective. Kristy may have retired from the bodybuilding stage, but now is making a big impression in powerlifting. Fans will never forget her gracing the bodybuilding stage.

Kristy Hawkins Interview (2017)

Will Women Out Run Men in the Future?

It was once predicted that women in track and field would reach or surpass men’s performance levels. These predictions were made in the early 1980s. The examination of Olympic records demonstrates a different outcome. Women’s Olympic records were stabilizing by 1983. After more drug testing it appeared women were reducing in speed. The use of performance enhancing drugs can not be the sole explanation for the increase in performance. Women at this time were still relative newcomers to international professional sport. Women were again gaining higher times by the 21st century, which sparked interest in possibilities of performance in female runners. While it is true women and increase their speed and strength, does this mean they will out sprint men in the future ? Some exercise physiologists have made predictions based on current data. There are claims that women will outrun men by 2156. Predictions can be wrong and many times unscientific. Stating it would never happen also causes some errors. To discover the answer to this question, it must be approached through methods of biology and physiology.

       There is a point in which athletic performance between men and women is equivalent. Boys and girls are at the same level of aerobic and strength capacity. The skeletons and bone structure has not been changed due to the effects of puberty. Puberty in terms of endocrinological changes works in the advantage of males. Men will gain a significant strength spurt, denser bones, larger lungs, and bigger hearts. The changes in women result in more body fat and the development of a wider pelvis. This means girls on a high school track team would see themselves getting slower. Girls who are on high school track and field teams normally seem to peak athletically as  freshmen and sophomores. This differs for various individuals. Average female runners may struggle more with the hormonal changes, than the more genetically advantaged. It has been noted that girls who have low body fat levels and exercise strenuously  may have delayed puberty. With gymnasts and sprinters this could result in a delayed growth spurt between the ages of 17 and 18. Training has to be adjusted to account for these changes. Weight training that concentrates on the hip areas can help prevent possible injuries. Weight management will have to be incorporated to account for the change in metabolism. Estrogen allows for more fat storage and extra weight does not contribute to increased acceleration.

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Despite these changes there are girls who attain higher speeds in adulthood and even go on to international competition. Although endocrinology explains the change in performance, it should not be forgotten that girls still face obstacles in sport. Title IX may not be enforced in certain school districts as it should. This would mean that girls would not have access to training facilities or even a team of their own. Other countries may keep women out of sport completely. Biology is not the sole factor, but environment. Women were only allowed to run in Olympic event starting in 1928. Men entry in running events in the modern Olympics began in 1900. During that time many argued women simply did not have the strength and stamina to run vigorously. This has since been disproved by exercise physiology. Still the influence of hormones on athletic performance cannot be underestimated.

       The legs of the human body allow for running to be possible. Men and women’s legs differ little  structure and anatomy. They contain the same bones and muscles. While men have more upper body strength, women are closer to men in the lower body. This does not mean women by default have stronger legs than men, rather it is easier for them to build strength in this region of the body. This does not mean women cannot build powerful legs through training. Type II muscle fibers would be best for sprinters who require short bursts of power. Type I muscle fibers are best suited for long distance runners. Men have larger muscle fibers, which means this would useful to the leg muscles. A runner uses a multitude of muscles when running.

 When moving the leg in the forward motion the quadriceps are utilized. This muscle is located at the front of the thigh and is responsible for straitening the knee, while bending the hips. The quadriceps also have the ability to absorb shock from impact as one lands on the ground. The hamstrings will straighten the hips and function to lift the knee behind you. Simultaneously, the soleus and gastrocnemius will flex and extend for each foot during launch and landings. The soleus and gastrocnemius contribute to absorbing shock, but also provide the stride in the rum. The gluteus maximus plays a role in running allowing for the stabilizing the trunk of the body. The hip  flexors and extendors collaborate with the quadriceps and hamstrings to keep the legs in motion.  Runners focus on building leg strength mainly to prevent injuries. When one muscle group is weak than the other this could to one over compensating and poor alignment. This could also result in repetitive motion injuries occurring in the knees, hips, and feet.

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plyometrics can be employed to improve performance. These exercises involve using jumping and bounding. These merely use hopping motions, while alternating legs to exercise deeper muscles of the legs. A muscle when exercised will increase in size. Muscular hypertrophy can occur in women through training, but men see a higher level of gains in total muscle mass. The reason is that higher testosterone levels allow for more protein synthesis. This results in a difference in absolute muscular strength between men and women. This even effects the legs.

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The muscles of the legs include the hamstrings, quadriceps, soleus, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemius  which are essential for running.

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It is not just muscles that are responsible for strength, but the bones, ligaments, and tendons. The skeletal structure is critical when looking at running speeds. Technically, women can have larger leg muscles,but there are other reasons they may not attain the same speed levels.

        Women have lower bone mass compared to men. One factor that causes that explains women’s slower speeds is the structure of the pelvis. The female pelvis is different from that of men. It is wider for the purpose of childbirth. This also creates a level of risks in running . Women are more likely to have knee ligament injuries, due to a wider pelvis which forms a larger angle between the thigh and the shin bones. This means the knee will experience more pressure. The pelvis consists of the hip bones, sacrum as well as coccyx. It connects the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. The symphsis pubis, which is a disc structure of cartilage separates the left and right pubic bones. The main differences between the female pelvis is that it is lighter, more shallow, and the sacrum is much  shorter. Both ilium are less sloped, which means the anterior superior iliac spines are wider apart. The coccyx is more flexible in the female skeleton. The actual hip sockets are smaller and are directed more so to the front.

These differences do not seem to be advantages in terms of increasing running speed. If women’s pelvis’ were even wider they would not be able to walk. Men’s narrower pelvis contributes to faster speeds. Besides the actual pelvis, the bones of the legs are pivotal. The femur, tibia, and fibula are support structures for the muscles of the legs. The extra angling can make women more vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament tears. Women just like men can also suffer from overuse of tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Women ‘s looser joints allow for more flexibility, but in running it could pose problems. Muscles and bones are pivotal to running. There is also the importance of aerobic capacity and its relation to the respiratory system.

      Aerobic capacity differs between men and women. The VO2max is the amount of oxygen that is used during exercise. Women have smaller hearts and lungs which means their total aerobic out put would be lower compared to a man of a larger size. The muscles need oxygen to have it form adinosine triphosphate. The larger the heart means more blood pumping through the body, while larger lungs can oxygenate tissues. Realizing these differences in both the heart and respiratory system means women would require a specific training program. Women’s ventricular hypertrophy may not increase as much as a man’s given duration and intensity. Women do have an advantage in terms of pacing. Men may be more susceptible to muscle glycogen depletion, which women’s fat reserves can contribute to endurance exercise. One would assume this means women, may not be able to run any faster. The conclusion would be to design training tailored to these specific physiological and anatomical differences.

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The human heart can pump up to 80ml of blood with each beat.
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The respiratory system consists of both upper and lower tracts. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that contracts and flattens. The reduction of pressure on the thoracic cavity allows the lungs to expand downward. This will force air out and the lungs go back to regular position.

The heart anatomically and physiologically is the same in men and women. The heart’s structure is that of a muscular pump which is divided by the septum. It is further divided by two pivotal chambers. The upper atrium is the first chamber followed by a lower ventricle in which the blood will be pumped. The Vo2max  capacity is reliant on several factors. The heart’s total capacity to pump blood is essential. The lungs ability to oxygenate blood transported active muscles and other tissues also contributes a role in aerobic capacity. Then hemoglobin levels and the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood effect total aerobic output. Smaller lungs and hearts of women means that oxygen will be slower getting to tissues of the body. An athlete can breath up to sixty times or more per minute. The lungs are cone structured containing a narrow apex and base. There are only two, but the right has three lobes. The left lung has to make room for the heart and only has two lobes in total. The trachea acts as an airway, while the bronchi (left and right), their subdivisions,  and other lung tissues work on gaseous exchange. Besides the muscular system playing a role the cardiovascular and respiratory system are a major part of running performance.

       The anatomical and physiological traits are averages. It is important to this question to examine data of female runners. The samples are limited due to certain factors. The first problem is that women’s participation in sports are lower, which means their could still be women in the global population who would not be counted in data. Then there is the question of performance enhancing drug use. Men account for more of the users of performance enhancing drugs and women have used the same substances as well. The theory holds that women benefited more from performance enhancing drugs. Anabolic androgenic steroids some sports scientists say was the reason certain records were being set in the 1970s and 1980s. That cannot not be the only explanation for these records. It could have been a combination of training and use of performance enhancing drugs. However, if anabolic steroids were so effective women should have closed the difference in performance. The fact is that drugs would not turn an athlete superhuman. Steroids only alter the endocrine system, but will not change the individual at the genetic level.

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Women’s and men’s records as recorded in the 1980s.
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The change in records through the decades.

Testosterone is helpful in muscular hypertrophy, but not the only factor. A woman with a naturally mesomorphic body can develop muscle. A woman on steroids would not have the equivalent strength levels of a male athlete. The reason being is that the testes produce more free testosterone as compared to the estrogen produced in a woman’s body. This explains why when boys grow into men their natural strength becomes higher. The graph below shows some records of boys and girls, then men and women. The dramatic change happens around ages 14 and 15. The teenage boys seem to have higher records to adult women. This is a small sample gathered from women and men from childhood to puberty .Women do not gain a strength spurt, rather estrogen produces more fat. Whiles testosterone is a significant component it is not the only one. There was a slump in records after new testing procedures emerged, but women’s records began to rise a little once more.

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What can be extrapolated from this is that drug use was not the sole reason. The idea that drugs can produce victories without proper and precise training regimens is false. There are periods in which new talents emerge. Then it must be considered that there are attributes unique to an individual’s biology. An athlete would have a genetic advantage, which means other athletes attempting to break their records would find it insuperable.

       There are athletes due to their biology and genetics have an edge in competition. There are women through their performances have demonstrated this. Paula Radcliff finished the London marathon in 2 hours, 15 minutes, and 25 seconds in 2003 (running a 26 mile). This was an impressive leap forward. It also shows who records are altered by sports federations. The International Associations of  Athletics Federations declared in 2012 that they eliminated her time from the annuls of marathon records, because she was running with male pacemakers. That means women who run in mixed groups cannot have their times archived. This again is an example of how you cannot get precise data. There could be women like Radcliff running in mixed groups, but are not documented for records.Even though sexist prejudice does not recognize the record, it still is a documented time.  Florence Griffith Joyner was another remarkable talent. If we were to compare her fastest time (10.49 S) to Usain Bolt’s (9.58s). Joyner would still be slower yet the difference is only by 0.91s. That means she would still be close to him if this were a tack meet. Despite the anatomical and physiological differences Joyner was able to obtain a high level of physical fitness.

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Elaine Thompson during the Rio 2016 achieved a time 10.71s. Compared to Joyner’s record it is a difference 0.22s. Assuming that Elaine Thompson can improve her training, it would simple to reach or beat Joyner’s record. Usain Bolt’s record would be more difficult for her to reach. These are not your average track athletes, they a professional Olympic competitors. These women are not average; they are exceptional. What they achieved may not be in reach of every women who decides to compete.

This not only applies to women, but men as well. Every man would not be able to reach Bolt’s level of performance. Joyner, Thompson, and Radcliffe  are a few examples of how genes and training can develop a high performing athlete. Being female is not a limitation in terms of developing physical prowess.  There has to be consideration of biology and the physiological attributes of sex  when training. While it is clear these women can run faster than an average man, they still have yet to achieve speeds of the fastest men. One can assume that women will never do. Yet, just like making predictions it is fast conclusion. Human evolution has show that the body has changed over millions of years. The most dramatic is that humanity became bipedal. developed a more complex brain, and shorter intestines. Assuming that humanity could still be evolving physically, the question becomes more expansive.

       Oxford University produced a study in 2004 stated that in 2156 women will outrun men. This was a study led by a professor of the name of Dr.Tatem. Readers should again question material that they receive. Similar predictions were made in 1992 saying women would be out running men by 2000. The error they made was that performance would follow almost a linear model. The data shows more of a sinusoidal fluctuation. The Oxford study states that women sprinters will reach times 8.079s in the 100m. The authors then claim that 2064 will be the year in which women sprinters shall achieve higher performance levels. Their assessment was that women would not overtake men, but reduce the gap in performance. That seems more realistic, rather than the 2156 prediction of women dominating sprint performances. There is still much to be explored about sports performance. Women are often ignored in exercise physiology studies, because most are designed for men. There are efforts to change this now that women are entering this field. The mathematics of this study may not be as precise, but Elaine Thompson’s 10.71 second record makes it seem as if it is achievable. It would almost be impossible for a human being to reach a time of 4.5 seconds. There is a point in which the body reaches physiological peak. This means that there can no longer be improvements to strength, speed, or endurance because maximum levels have been reached.

         This question has several possible answers. The first could be that women will narrow the gap  and some will even overlap with men. The more conventional answer is that women will not out run men in the future and they have achieved all they can. The third answer may be that women will surpass men either by new training techniques, changes in human evolution, or changes in genetics. The third answer would be difficult to prove due to the fact evolution takes millions of years. There still genes being identified and it is still questionable which ones form a great athlete. Training techniques are revised overtime. There is considerable debate which results in the best performance. The second answer seems to just assume results will stay stagnant. Although looking at the data now shows that it seems unlikely women would out run men, one should never just assume. The situation could change, but not in this period. It was in the 1928 Olympics than many believed women were too weak for running. Now, women are running faster than the men of the 20th century. There is possibility of improvement or maybe women have reached their full physical capability. The reason men could be still improving is that they have not reached theirs yet. Examining performance from that perspective men would be behind. The more realistic conclusion is that women would narrow the gap. It would not be closed nor would women en mass outperform men. However, it it not impossible that individual women could reach male performance levels in the future.

References

Brewer,Sarah. The Human Body A Visual Guide to Anatomy.  London:Quercus, 2012.

Mcdonagh, Eileen and Pappano, Laura. Playing With the Boys : Why Separate Is Not 

   Equal in Sports. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

“UK | Women ‘may Outsprint Men by 2156’.” BBC News. BBC, 30 Sept. 2004. Web. 06 Apr. 2017. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3702650.stm&gt;.

George, Brandon. “Track Skills Often Decline as Girls Mature into Women | SportsDay.”SportsDayHS. SportsDayHS, 19 May 2010. Web. 06 Apr. 2017. <http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/high-school/sportsheadlines/2010/05/19/20100513-Track-skills-often-decline-as-girls-6083&gt;.
Tucker, Ross. “Women vs Men Part II: The Physiology of Difference | Science of Sport.” The Science of Sport. The Science of Sport, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 06 Apr. 2017. <https://sportsscientists.com/2007/10/women-vs-men-part-ii-the-physiology-of-difference/&gt;.
Will Women Out Run Men in the Future?

Desiree Ellis on Goals

This is a video made by Desiree Ellis explaining what is required to accomplish goals. whether it is a sport or a business or a sport you must as Desiree says “live, breathe and eat it.”Desriee also states that keeping herself physically and mentally fit is also critical to other aspects of life. With a business it is important to build relationships with others in a particular industry. She says you must trust in the process. Most importantly resilience in pursuit of objectives. Being an athlete herself, she understands how setbacks get in the way .Developing strategies to counter them is essential. Also, stay motivated and passionate in what you do. Desiree showed this in her IFBB career and fans still remember her gracing the stage.

Desiree Ellis on Goals