Women Run Faster After Taking Newly Developed Supplement

Women run faster after taking newly developed supplement, study finds Combo of minerals and other nutrients might boost performance

According to a study conducted by Ohio State University women saw an increase in running speed with a nutritional supplement. This experiment involved women who took this new nutritional supplement  and another group of women who took a placebo. This was a great way to devise the experiment rather than telling the placebo group that they were not taking anything special. Such findings indicate that there is a possibility that women’s athletic performance can be greatly improved, if tailored to their biological and physiological structure. The major problem is that exercise physiology studies or experiments mostly use men. Women are not the same as men, which is why if they are to get the best training and nutrition programs, experiments must used female subjects. Women are now serious athletic competitors and they need supplements to meet their competition and performance objectives. The results were published in the Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition . Such studies are going to change women’s athletic performance by fixing deficiencies in nutrition. While training is essential, diet and nutrition have proven to make a difference in athletic performance.

        The minerals that were given to women included forms of iron, zinc, copper and  carnitine. The supplement also phosphatidylserine, which was derived from both fatty acids and amino acids. Carnitine was also derived from amino acids. phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid responsible for the health of human cells. The omega 3 fatty acids that are in it called EPA and DHA. The role it fills is to maintain healthy cell membranes. Phosphatidylserine can be produced in the body, but can also be found in particular foods. This phospholipid contributes to cellular function and also provides help to other tasks. Phosphatidylserine  is responsible for bone matrix formation, heart beat coordination, hormone secretion by the adrenal glads, and testicular function in men. The phospholipid also may play a role in maintaining neuron health and cognition.  Carnitine can be found in most cells of the human body. It is involved in energy production. It must transport fatty acids to the mitochandria, while removing waste compounds formed out of the organelles. There are carnitine supplements, yet the evidence that it can improve athletic performance is inconclusive. It seems that it is better when combined with other minerals as the study demonstrates. Carnitine has a variety of compounds which consist of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine.

Professor Robert Disilvestro the lead author and of the study stated : “I decided to start with minerals that are commonly low — or thought to be low in many diets — and brought in some of the supporting cast.” This reasoning appears to be correct in the formation of more efficient supplements. This also has implications beyond athletic performance. The reason many people may not be in great health is that they are not getting the proper nutritional requirements. Knowing this, some individuals could be doing the proper amount of exercise, yet are having deficiencies in diet.

Understanding phospholipids and other amino acid derivatives can be more beneficial to women seeking to improve their performance.  Robert Disilvestro discusses that there are some nutrition problems women have as serious athletes. This supplement also holds an economic opportunity. Disilverstro is seeking to develop this supplement for commercial use and was supported by Gatorade Sports Science Institute. They are not involved in commercialization efforts, but is possible they will be. This is an example of applied science. What applied science does is take the research and knowledge discovered then uses it for practical purposes. Relevant to this experiment the supplement will at some point be used for athletic performance.

          There are problems that the female athlete faces in terms of nutrition. Young women according to Disilverso have micro-deficiencies in nutrients. This will effect cell function during exercise. This means women’s full potential in terms of performance is being reduced due to the lack of such nutrients for the cell. The cells are the building blocks of the human body, so if they do not function properly this could result in major health issues. Young women in particular face these nutrient based deficiencies.


A nutrient is by definition a substance required for growth and the maintenance of life. Fatty acids and amino acids would be classified as micro-nutrients. The essential nutrients of the body are carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, protein, water,  and minerals. This can be acquired through the consumption of food or supplements. Another problem is that women tend to consume less meat than men, even when doing high amounts of physical activity. Meat can be an important source of protein and women need that just like any other athlete. Food is fuel for the human body. If women eat less they are not getting enough fuel. Consumption should be adjusted relative to considerations of endocrinology. Women would metabolize food into fat stores due to higher production of estrogen and progesterone. However, building muscle has the ability to burn fat. Eating enough of the right foods and having the correct amount of physical activity can make a difference in athletic performance.

There is also the consideration of how mensuration can have a role in mineral loss. This effects women differently ranging from severe cases to moderate levels of mineral loss. Mineral loss during mensuration can be countered with the consumption of vitamins A, C, E, and B. Vitamin A is essential to diet due to the fact it promotes growth of skeletal tissue. Bone health is essential for any person, especially an athlete doing an immense amount of physical activity. Once these issues are addressed women can have improvements in their run times. Designing supplements and training programs to women’s physiology and biology will make them more efficient athletes.

          The experiment’s conclusions revealed fascinating discoveries. The subjects did three mile runs and saw their run average drop from 26.5 minutes to 25.6 minutes. That calculates to a difference of 0.9 minutes. Stationary bikes were also utilized in the study. The distance covered was from 6.5 miles to 6 at the start of this study. There was also a step test that was done. the results from that part of the experiment showed women increased from about 44 to 40. These changes were not present in the placebo group, indicating this supplement could be effective. The first experiment only used 28 women and the following one used 36. A lower does of nutrients was used  and resulted in a 41 second average decrease in run times. The women used in these experiments were described as recreational athletes between the ages of 18 to 30 years old. They either done some form of aerobic exercise a least three hours a week for a minimum of six months. The reason for not using moderately in shape  women was that according to Professor  DiSilvestro “we wanted people who could already run three miles without it being a terrible burden.” The problem with this is precision. If this supplement is truly effective, the best way to see so is to test it on non-athletic women. The athletically trained women would gain from this, but they have already reach a fitness level in which it does not appear to be a dramatic change.

A more precise experiment would be to train women of lower physical fitness levels. This would take longer, but if their performance is significantly higher than their starting point it can be assumed that the supplement is highly effective.  The same process should be used. The subjects first ran three miles, biked, and the ended with the step test. The reason the stationary bike was used was to see if such a supplement could be used for more than just running. This could only be done if women in the study reach a high point of physical activity.

Men who are vegetarians may struggle with a nutrient deficiency. Protein is one of those nutrients that is harder for the vegetarian to get.Other methods of getting dietary requirements would have to used instead of consuming meat for the vegetarian  Although nutrient deficiencies are less common in men, they are not completely imperious to it. Supplements may not be a substitute for eating food with them in it, but can help people who have such issues in deficiencies. There also is another factor that may skew the data. This experiment was only done for 30 days and that may be too early to say that it very effective. At minimum a month would have been better. There is also the possible problem of side effects. So far, there appear to be none. Professor     DiSilvestro only added minimal amounts of nutrients when it was produced in capsule form. If measured correctly and the right dose is given this new supplement can be safe. The supplement will need further testing for safety and effectiveness. There are many supplements that claim to improve performance. These pronouncements are not always scientifically confirmed. This new supplement seems to be effective, yet must be able to produce the same results in accordance with the scientific method. These first experiments may only give approximations, rather than precise measures of effectiveness.


Women Run Faster After Taking Newly Developed Supplement

Bernie Ecclestone, Formula One Racing, And The Question of Women’s Physical Capability.

Motor sports continue to be mostly male dominated. There remains a culture that does not accept women race car drivers and doubts their capabilities. Some claims are either just unfounded when detractors voice their opinions on why women should not participate. Bernie Ecclestone CEO of Formula 1 stated that women were not strong enough for formula one racing. Although he did say women may have a future in the business aspects, he doubts that would be taken seriously as athletes. Ecclestone stated in 2016 :“I don’t know whether a woman would physically be able to drive an F1 car quickly, and they wouldn’t be taken seriously.” His belief or rather disbelief is that women are not capable of handling the F 1 races. This has little basis in scientific foundation. Although there are sex differences related to sexual dimorphism, there are women who certainly would have enough strength to handle g forces. One would have to examine what are the physical demands for a driver and see if women could meet them. There are already women who have been race car drivers, so Ecclestone’s assessment does not seem accurate. What determines the success of the race car driver is their physical conditioning and the quality of their vehicle.

            There is a level of fitness required to drive a Formula 1 car. Having a high level of fitness reduces the level of fatigue going through laps. Cars have the ability to create up to 3.5 g of force. Drivers have to do aerobic  and strength training to handle g-forces so they can last entire sustain the force for entire races. Cardiovascular training is done ahead of the racing season and slowly reduce it as time goes by. Running, swimming and cycling are also incorporated in to training regimens.

Women have been athletes and test drivers in Formula 1 racing. Maria Teresa De Filippis was the first woman ever to race in 1958. Although other women have followed, racing and cars are still seen as a male only pursuit.

 Strength training can be very helpful, but too much muscular hypertrophy could cause complications. What drivers experience on their bodies is the force concentrated is the neck and chest muscles. The weight of the helmet and g-force can put extra strain on the neck. G-forces can make both the head and helmet weigh five times more than normal. The wonderful attribute about gym equipment it can help target specific muscle groups like the chest or neck muscles. Drivers also form “rigs” that also assist in such targeting. Although there is power assisted steering, strong arm muscles and a powerful core helps. This allows more stable control over the vehicle. This may be the most difficult part for women. Building upper body strength is more difficult for women compared to men.

F1 car

Women do not have the same structured shoulders as men. Male shoulder length tends to be broader meaning there is more muscle that can be housed on the upper body. The upper body advantage give men more of an edge, but this does not mean women cannot build strength.  Women can build strength and muscle on a weight training regimen. This does not only depend on sex or endocrinology . Genetics, somatotype, and diet are also essential. The difference is in physical fitness capacity. Men have higher physical fitness capacity due to endocrinology and body size. There are obviously women who are more than strong enough to handle a Formula 1 car. Women weightlifters, crossfit competitors, bodybuilders, tack and field athletes are notorious for their strength. They train for different tasks, so this automatically does not mean they would make the best race car drivers.

There is also the question of concentration, reaction time, and hand eye coordination. Race car driving is radically different from driving a regular car. Motor sport athletes will sometimes use batak reaction board to train for races to improve elements of reaction time.There does exist a difference in male and female reaction time. According to some studies men respond faster to visual and audio stimuli. Reflexes described in this context refers to how fast a person can react to stimulus. This could be a factor when a racer is driving and hitting the break of the car. The muscle fiber type that would be most useful would probably be type II. However, there is an amount of endurance required to handle such races.

Muscles of the core are pivotal to race care drivers. Arm strength and muscles of the upper body are required for steering. 

There also needs to be a focus on leg strength as well. A driver must generate at least an estimated 80 kilograms to hit the breaks for stops. Having strong legs is good, but more muscle mass does not equate to automatic efficiency. A racer could use the brake up to 1,500 times in a race. This is the section of the body were women are closer to men in terms of strength. The difference is in the structure of the pelvis. This would not effect women in the care as much, because they are not running. The pedal of an F1 is entirely different from a regular car. It requires more force for gaining speed. This means the driver would have to be able to hold a minimum of 90 kg (198 lbs) on a leg press machine. Driving does involve the legs extensively.

leg-pressThe driving of an F1 car involves both the upper and lower body. Contrary to popular belief, there is a level of fitness required to handle cars like these. Strength and cardiovascular fitness can be out to the test under the strains of a race. The circulatory system must be in optimal condition for the sake of endurance. There are no breaks or rest periods during the race. During competition body temperature and blood pressure can increase. Races could be up to two hours long. The heart beat per minute can increase during the race. The average person has a resting heart beat of 70 bpm (beats per minute ). For a race car driver it can be up to 50 bmp or higher when in racing competition. Due to increased heat, dehydration could be a possible threat to an F1 driver. Even when motor athletes drive in moderate climates, they still can perspire up to three liters.

Having the biggest muscles may not be helpful in a race. Large mass could just more effect from g-force.  Tia Norfleet and Danica Patrick are not at the same strength levels as Kira Neuman or Mah-Ann Mendoza. Yet the bodybuilders would not be the best race car drivers. 

The driver’s blood pressure can increase up to at least 50 percent. This also proves to be a complication for women. The average woman’s heart beats faster compared to men. Women’s hearts and lungs are also smaller compared to men. The heart is structured as a four chamber pump which has two blood receiving chambers. These are the left and right atria. The left and right ventricles with beats from the heart force blood into the arteries. The cardiovascular condition can be changed through training. Trained athletes have slower heart rates compared to non-athletes. The female athlete’s heart still beats faster compared to the male athlete or regular exerciser .


This explains why aerobic training can be important to the motor sport athlete. What controls the heart rate in the human body is cells known as sino-atrial node. What these cells do is act like a natural pacemaker. Depending on the information from nerves the cells will either lower or increase the heart rate. Women respond in a similar fashion except for they are programmed for a higher heart rate. Endurance and strength are needed. Women can handle F1 cars if trained physically for the rigor. There are biological and anatomical considerations that should be noted in training.

          Diet is also essential to athletes. Food provides energy for the body and sustains it for exercise. Race car drivers follow a specific diet. Drivers have protein and carbohydrates in their diets. Chicken or fish can sometimes be consumed for pre-race meal. Vegetables are also part of a drivers diet. Rice and pasta, which are carbohydrates are also consumed to give an athlete a boost of vital energy. The consumption of water is necessary to avoid dehydration.Diets and nutrition for female athletes has to be adjusted for metabolic differences. Women have higher body fat percentages based on hormones. Knowing this it means that women consume huge amounts of food, their activity level would have to be enough to burn necessary fat. Eating less actually can be counter productive in the process. This can cause metabolic slowdown resulting in weight gain. The body needs the right amount of calories and physical activity to manage weight.

 Women have to be careful to eat the right amount of calories to meet metabolic demands. A female race car driver can benefit from a specific diet that can help with races. Exercise and diet can make a woman’s body strong enough for F1 cars.

        G-force will be a physical property that the body must confront in F1 races. G-force is the amount of pressure produced from gravitation on an accelerating object relative to free fall. Seeing as there are so few F1 women drivers it is uncertain if g-force causes extra strain on the female body. Fighter pilots and aerobatic pilots experience g-force. There are women who are fighter pilots that experience g-force at higher levels. The majority of g-force experienced by a fighter pilot aligns mostly with the spine. The F 1 driver has  the g-force focused mostly at right angles to the spine. This comes down to the question of g-force tolerance. There may not be a specific body type that is best for g-force tolerance. The force an effect the neck , ribs, and hips. Some drivers report that they feel as if they are being squeezed. It is possible that a larger person with more body fat could tolerate higher g-forces. The circulation limits blood flow, but the issue would be other physical strains.

Ecclestone’s comments and claims start to collapse when examined from a scientific perspective. Based off the g-force that women fighter pilots experience, there should be no reason that women would have difficulty with a Formula 1 car. Breathing control must be accounted for. While air planes have a technological solution for this, cars do not. Going above 3 gs makes it impossible to breathe as normal. Turning corners makes it more difficult. Forces can be more than a person’s weight, but for short periods of time. When analyzing the degrees of g-force it seems possible that women could be F1 racers. A fighter jet can put a pilot under the strain of 9 to 12 gs. A Formula 1 car only can produce up to 5 gs. Saying that men will be better drivers simply because they are stronger is incorrect. There are women who are actually stronger than F 1 racers. Mark Webber  during his racing career weighed 69 kg. If compared to bodybuilder Colette Nelson during her career,  it seems that she would be stronger based on her 79 kg weight (off season). Force equals mass times acceleration, so based off of weight it would appear she would able to generate more power.

Webber stands at 182 cm, while Colette stands at 165 cm. It is uncertain what Webber bench pressed or lifted during his career, but it is certain that Colette could do more. Now this would not make Colette the best race car driver,but it would be in her capability if she adjusted her training for such a pursuit.  Other factors such as reflexes or driving skill are also part of being a motor athlete. Anyone can drive a car, yet there is a level of skill that the race car drive must have to be on the track. Also there must be a consideration of g-force and how to cope with it during races. This may be the most difficult physical strain on the body. Experienced racers say that after a while the body can adjust, but it is more difficult getting acclimated to when starting.

      The reason there are not more F1 female drivers is not entirely based on biology. There are social barriers. Cars are still viewed as a male only passion. Seeing as it is mechanical and engineering based there is a bias that women are not capable of such aptitude. Motor sport and race car driving as seen as quintessentially male. F1 is seen as one of the most prestigious races in the motor sport world. Many men aspire to become start racers, but it is more difficult for a woman. Prejudice and financial constraints continue to burden women’s sports. Women are slowly in small numbers integrating into motor sports. The problem is the culture of extreme machismo and lack of female interest. There is exclusion that is combined with women not willing to take a risk and try something different. If women want a place in motor sports, they have to increase their participation rates and  encourage other women to join. So it cannot be entirely men’s fault in terms of  the condition of women in motor sports.The frailty myth still exists in one way or another with the idea that women are biologically and physically inferior. Sexual dimorphism does not indicate inferiority. If women are to be successful in F1  they should have training tailored to reaching specific fitness goals.  The question that emerges is which training method is better. Weight training and endurance training can have a benefit to the motor athlete. Dr. Riccardio Cecarrelli who works with F1 Lotus Teams stated that strength is not the only physical fitness element a driver needs. Dr. Cecarelli also said the emphasis should be on mental training as well. Drivers have to be alert and able to concentrate during races. His philosophy is in order to achieve an optimum training should be spent 30 % physical exercise and 70% mental training.  Women may not be driving the best cars in particular races. Women may need more time to physical adapt to the demands of racing. What can be reached as a conclusion is that women can be F1 racers if given the opportunity and correct training. Bernie Ecclestone’s convictions are not based on scientific fact or credible evidence. There is change occurring and it may not be a surprise to see more women race car drivers in the coming decades.


 Norton, Charlie. “Formula One Drivers Feel the G-Force.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 10 May 2010, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/motorsport/7681665/Formula-One-drivers-feel-the-G-force.html.

Edrington, Allison. “Does Gender Affect Reflexes?” Healthfully, Healthfully, healthfully.com/gender-affect-reflexes-8750069.html.
Rosenberg, Warren. “What Is the Difference Between Male & Female Heart Rates?”LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 11 Sept. 2017, http://www.livestrong.com/article/208145-what-is-the-difference-between-male-female-heart-rates/.
Cespedes, Andrea. “Does Eating More Boost Your Metabolism?” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 18 July 2017, http://www.livestrong.com/article/383501-does-eating-more-boost-your-metabolism/.
Barretto, Lawrence. “Where Are All the Female Formula 1 Racing Drivers? – BBC Sport.” BBC News, BBC, 2 June 2012, http://www.bbc.com/sport/formula1/18332772.
Auty, Ben. “Formula 1: Are F1 Drivers Considered Athletes?” Bleacher Report, Bleacher Report, 12 Apr. 2017, bleacherreport.com/articles/30864-formula-1-are-f1-drivers-considered-athletes.
“Driver Fitness.” Formula 1® – The Official F1® Website, http://www.formula1.com/en/championship/inside-f1/understanding-f1-racing/Driverfitness.html.
Bernie Ecclestone, Formula One Racing, And The Question of Women’s Physical Capability.

Sports Medicine Weekly : Strength Training

Strength Training

Sports Medicine Weekly is a radio program and website associated with ESPN  presented by Dr. Brian Cole with Dr. Steve Kashul. They expose readers and listeners to topics regarding sports performance, training, and exercise physiology. The topic discussed in this presentation is strength training and its benefits to performance. It was once thought that strength training would hinder performance, but science proved that notion incorrect. The fear of unnecessary bulk was more of a myth than anything else. This does not stop an athlete from performing a skilled movement of the body. When the term strength training is used there is the assumption is that it is just lifting heavy weights. There is more science and method to training regimens such as these. Sports Medicine Weekly provides a simple explanation about the elements of such training. The strength training program can be describe by five elements : muscular hypertrophy, maximal strength, explosive power, strength endurance, and periodization. If these elements are followed an athlete can increase their physical fitness capacity.

        When the muscle goes through a training regimen it will experience hypertrophy. Muscular hypertrophy only constitutes one aspect of sports specific strength training. This should be done for a specific group of athletes. Football and rugby players need it because their sport is contact. Bodybuilders want hypertrophy to shape the body’s muscles in a particular way.

The significant mass that these athlete acquire acts as a protection from aggressive body contact. The text states that too bulk can be a hindrance to most athletes. This is not true in certain cases, however it depends on what sport an athlete is competing in. Muscle mass would not be helpful curling or race car driving. Extra mass would be useful in wrestling, but that depends on which weight class the athlete is aiming to compete in. Muscle mass can contribute to force generation. Muscular hypertrophy can happen in both men and women. The difference in total mass gained is related to body composition and endocrinology. Muscles do get bigger from a strength training routine through adaptation. What causes growth includes the increase in actin and myosin  which are contractile proteins. There is also an increase in enzymes and stored nutrients. Myofibrils and connective tissue increases. Muscular hypertrophy can either be chronic or transient. Chronic muscular hypertrophy is the long term increase in the size of the muscles. Transient hypertrophy is experienced during exercise.

Protein synthesis stimulates muscle growth. During recovery periods from exercise protein synthesis increases. It is at low levels during exercise. More muscle does not mean more strength. It is related to the fiber type. Type II muscle fiber has more power while type I muscle fiber is more endurance based.A weightlifter would have more type II fast twitch fibers compared to a marathon runner. Athletes train their bodies specifically for a particular physical task. Strength is no solely about the size of the muscle, but the nervous system response to stimulus. Studies have suggested that motor neuron function and its efficiency also aid strength.



It should also be understood that type II muscle fibers have two classifications. Type IIA fibers are fatigue resistant, oxidative,  and fast. Type IIAB are notably glycolytic, oxidative  and are still fast but have an intermediate fatigue level. Type IIB is the most powerful having more force and more energy. There is a price for power in regards to endurance. Recovery is slow in type IIB muscle fiber. It is a possibility athletes could have a blend of both type I and type II muscle fiber. Hormones and    cytokines are essential contributors to muscular hypertrophy.

         The second element to strength training programs is the accumulation of maximal strength. Maximal strength ( sometimes called absolute strength) is the total force an athlete can generate from their body. The importance of this strength training element is based on the specific tasks of the sport. The more natural strength an athlete has the more potential to expand it further. Natural strength is the force than can be generated with no training at all. Through training natural strength can be converted into endurance or explosive power.  The peculiar aspect of maximal strength training is that it may not produce the same level of muscular hypertrophy. This may explain why a thinner person who trains in this manner may become stronger than a person who trains for the sake of aesthetics.

 This does not mean that hypertrophy would not happen to individuals who do maximal strength training. It is possible through genetics. The MTSN gene dictates the instructions for the production of myostatin. This protein regulates the growth of the musculoskeletal tissues. If an individual has low levels of myostatin this makes their potential of muscular hypertrophy greater. People do not use their total strength for simple tasks. Lifting a book would take less effort than lifting a weight. Even athletes when in competition may not use 100% of their maximal strength. There is an obvious reason based on body structure.

The muscles and skeleton when put under intense pressure and strain can be subject to injury. Muscle tears occur when the tissue is pushed far beyond its limit. Athletes may reach a maximal strength level, but they have not tapped into the total reserve of strength. Besides maximal strength, the body contains relative strength. This measures the force produced from a cross sectional area of muscle mass.Maximal strength can be translated into explosive power.

        Explosive power requires more than one action. Powerlifting requires one instance of explosive power to move weights. Other sports have to incorporate skilled movements  that are rapid and need the high power output. Physical power under a strength training program must be designed specifically for the functions of the sport. If this is not done, then maximal strength training will not be as effective in the long term. The basic foundation is the potential to add more strength, which can therefore be converted into explosive power. Power training although related to strength training has a major difference. The goal is to produce the largest amount of maximal strength in the shortest period of time. A person or athlete may have immense strength, but may not generate full power potential. The muscles must contract at a fast rate to improve power out put. This can be reversed by plyometrics.

Plyometrics is a method and system of training attempting to make muscular contraction more efficient by moving from muscle extension to rapidly producing power.  Other athletes such as martial artists, long jumpers, and sprinters have found this method to be the most useful for their performance. There are few guidelines for optimum training methods relative to plyometrics. Athletes who did this training have seen improvement. A quality strength program incorporates the methods of plyomentrics and power training. Strength has to be combined with skilled motor movements of the body. There is also another critical factor that is a part of strength training. Endurance has to be part of the general calculus.

      The other two elements of a strength training program include strength endurance and periodization.   Strength endurance refers to how long a person can last under strenuous activity. The amount of maximal strength also effects strength endurance. The larger amount means more left in terms of reserves. The goal is to maintain strength for a prolonged period. There is a point in which the body will fatigue and cannot to anymore. Athletes that focus on strength endurance include cyclists, swimmers, long distance runners, and rowers. The intent is to have a longer duration of activity.

This explains why circuit training is another method combined with a strength training program. Circuit training uses low weights and high repetitions. The problem is that many of these programs in circuit training  do not condition the nervous system adequately enough. A set of 15 to 20 repetitions would not produce the results an endurance athlete would desire. Circuit training does have benefits. That regimen has the ability to improve flexibility and coordination. The last element of strength training is periodization. A training program must be divided into phases. Doing this allows strength to peak at the right period, producing the desired outcome. Proceeding this way, it will allow for the reduction in possible over training. While it is important to be consistent with a regimen, rest must be valued as well. A period of recovery is required for the body to repair itself and allow muscle fibers to grow. Progression does not occur in  a week by week basis. When the program is broken into periods this allows for variations in exercise volume and intensity. This enables performance enhancements for a certain time.

There is a science to strength that involves cytology, biology, endocrinology, biomechanics,  and nervous system function. What ultimately is the best training method depends on what specific sports an individual is involved in. Explosive power for a marathon runner would not be as important as endurance. Pure strength will not be helpful unless fine motor skills are emphasized. What sports medicine and exercise physiology has done is allowed for a scientifically based method of training, rather than simple trial and error attempts.  Such topics can be complex when examining it from the physiological dimensions. Sports Medicine Weekly provided a lucid explanation for the general reader not familiar with the science of strength.

Sports Medicine Weekly : Strength Training

Why Strength Depends on More Than Just Muscle : Neural Adaptations Could Account For Differing Strength Gains Despite Similar Mass

Neural Adaptations

There is still more to learn about the human body and its relation to sports performance. The science of strength exposes a link between the muscular system and the nervous system. A study conducted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln revealed that a portion of strength does come from exercising the nervous system. This  was the explanation for why the subjects who lifted heavier weights enjoyed more strength than low load lifters regardless of similar gains in mass. Simply stated larger muscles do not always equate to more strength. That had been the common assumption, but this study challenges it. There should also be considerations to how experiments were conducted. There are other factors that influence strength that could distort the study. If the experiment is to be conducted again it should produce the same results to be considered fact. Exercise physiology has become an important field with applications for sports performance and health science.

          The experiment selected men only. These subjects trained on a leg extension machine loaded with either 30 to 80 percent of the maximum weight they could lift. This was done three times a week and subjects did this until they could no longer do repetitions. Nathaniel Jenkins and his colleagues then discovered that the high loaded group gained more strength compared to the low load group. They were able to increase strength by ten pounds worth. The subjects were making similar gains in terms of muscle mass, yet still there was a disparity in strength. If this is actually a fact of exercise physiology there should be a diverse sample of subjects. It would be fascinating to see how this experiment would work on women. The average woman does not have as much strength as the average man. Therefore if similar results were produced for women it would show which type of  load bearing exercise is most effective. A comparison between athletes and non-athletes could also be done for extra verification.

Researchers also supplied an electrical current to the nerves of the quadriceps . What was stimulated was the muscle used in the leg extension. It was not physiologically possible for subjects to generate 100 percent of force their muscle could produce. Thus the method of measurement  was done by comparing the unassisted kick and examining the voluntary activation. Voluntary activation refers to the capacity an individual has reached. The data showed a difference in low load groups and high load groups. Voluntary activation increase from 90.07 percent to 90.22 for the low load group ( 0.15  percent during the three weeks ).  The high load group saw an increase from 90.94 to 93.29 percent ( 2.35 percent during the three weeks).

What was extracted from this was that voluntary activation of motor neuron units during maximal contraction is beneficial to physical strength.  Jenkins wanted to be more precise and tested his hypothesis by another method. Subjects were asked to kick 10 percent of their baseline strength. This was done from a period of  three to six weeks. If high load training is better than the low load training a smaller portion of absolute strength should be used. This would mean the same force would be generated, while fewer motor neutrons are activated. If more motor neurons are activated that indicates less efficiency. When the electrodes were placed on high load subjects there was a drop in electrical activity during the exercise session. The data revealed that voluntary activation decreased for the low load group from 56 (baseline )  to 54.71 percent . The high load group dropped from 57 (baseline) to 49.43 percent. The conclusion from these experiments demonstrate that the nervous system and motor neurons play a role in strength. Lifting heavier may be more efficient compared to lifting lighter weights. It is possible subjects could gain the same mass, but not have the same strength levels.

           What should also be taken into consideration the other factors that contribute to strength. Bones,ligaments, and tendons also are a part of physical strength. Muscles rest on the skeletal frame. Ligaments attach bones to other bones. Tendons are responsible for attaching muscle to the bones of the body. Besides those considerations genetics also has a role in physical strength.  People with ectomorphic and endomorphic body structures may find it more difficult to build strength compared to more mesomorphic body types.

Although it is not impossible to increase physical fitness capacity depending on training, a part of potential is determined by particular genetics. Sex also plays a role in strength. Up until puberty, there is no difference in strength levels between the sexes. The shift occurs during the changes in growth. The hypothalamus will release gonadotropic releasing hormone, while the anterior pituitary gland forms  luteinizing hormone. This instructs the testis to produce more androgens. Testosterone contributes to protein synthesis causing a strength spurt in the male body. The difference related to to body composition in the sexes is related to endocrine function. Women produce higher levels of fat, which means less muscle for total body force recruitment. However, there is no difference between muscle cells between the sexes. Both men and women can experience muscular hypertrophy.  Relevant to this experiment  it should be asked if these other factors of bone, ligament, and tendon strength were accounted for. Then another question arises was this a measure of relative or absolute strength? If only one exercise was performed, it would most likely be relative strength.


Isometric training was utilized.  The measurements were also obtained by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. These devices are designed to resist applied forces,while controlling the speed of exercise, The rate is predetermined and maintains a record of applied force. While experiments can have multiple methods of measure, this does not completely eliminate mathematical error. The study when published in Frontiers of physiology  recognized this and notes some of the difficulties in the experiment.


Relative strength only measures cross sectional area of muscle and body mass. Absolute strength is the total sum of  possible body force generated from the upper and lower body. This experiment would be more precise if other exercises such as squats, bench press, or bicep curls were incorporated. The results would probably be the same, but it would reveal more about total absolute strength gains during a heavy load based weight training regimen. There are also muscle fiber types that are best suited for more power. Type II fast twitch muscle fiber has less endurance, yet more power.

      To fully grasp this study, one must understand what a motor neuron is. The motor neuron are efferent neurons that have origins in the spinal cord and perform synaptic functions with muscle fibers. This association produces muscle contraction with muscle spindles to also form proprioceptive sensitivity. The central nervous system is the reason the body can move. Nerve impulses ( action potentials ) carry information. These nerve impulses are the same containing 100 milivolts.

This is a diagram   of how the nervous systems functions with both upper and lower motor neurons.
motor cortex tmp15F87what-when-how.com
The motor cortex has involvement in human locomotion.

These cells have the task of controlling voluntary muscle activity. This would include everything from speaking, walking, breathing, swallowing, and for the skilled athlete numerous skilled movements during competition. The upper motor neurons stationed in the brain link through transmission to the lower motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord. The upper motor neurons are the directors and the lower neurons are the subordinates producing the movement of the body. Lower motor neurons would be involved in movement of the arms and chest. Walking would be a function of upper motor neurons. The nerves are branch like for the motor neurons almost resembling telephone lines. This explains when there is a spinal cord injury paralysis can occur. It essentially cuts off communication with other parts of the body. The branches when extended to other areas attach themselves to motor plates of a single muscle fiber. Thus, locomotion is a physiological function.

The neurons of the spinal cord are referred to as anterior horn cells. The upper motor neurons are also called corticospinal neurons. There is more auxiliary support for such specialized neurons. Motor circuits also contribute to the process of locomotion. If there is some form of disturbance with motor circuits this could cause serious health issues. The causes of spinal muscular atrophy and amytropic lateral sclerosis have a direct link to motor circuit dysfunction in the nervous system .  Further explorations into cytology could produce a possible cure in the future. This also could reveal methods at enhancing strength to higher degrees with an understanding of nervous system function. Through training there is a changes neural adaptation. Impulses can be received from other neurons. Neurons are also capable of producing its own wavelike movements of ions. Impulses then transport from one neuron to the next at junctions called synapses.

       Which training method is best depends on  specific goals. Low load exercises would be best for individuals who want to build mass without putting straining on the joints. This would be suitable mainly for older people and people recovering form injury. Building mass does not always equate to more strength. A weightlifter for example could be stronger than a bodybuilder. They are training for two different objectives. One wants to lift more weight while the other wants to gain more mass. Larger size of the muscle does not mean the person would be able to lift more. The weightlifter trains for functional strength rather than aesthetic presentation.

There is also the factor of how much of the body is composed of type II fast twitch fiber. It is possible that a person could have large muscles,but not be as strong as a person with smaller ones. This once more relates to training. Heavy load based training would be more effective in terms of time comparison with light load based lifting. Theoretically lifting light weights still could build muscle; it would take longer amount of time.  The study does show this. Age is also a factor in strength and that is why subjects were selected between the ages of 19 to 35. This was done because around this age that is the body’s physical peak. The subjects did not have any previous weight training experience and were free from musculoskeletal conditions or diseases. Diet is also important factor in strength. Participants completed a three day dietary log. This documented what subjects consumed and allowed for an account of daily energy intake. What one eats only contributes to the effectiveness of the training. This experiment could allow for the design of more efficient training and fitness programs. Depending on the objective a training or fitness program should take into consideration neural adaptation.

            Neural adaptation is the alteration of the sensory system in response to a stimulus over time. It can be classified as either slow or fast adaptation. When the response happens immediately after the stimulus presentation this would be classified as fast. The rate of slow adaptation is gradual. Weight training would be classified as fast adaptation. The experiment conducted proved this through the using electromyography. This is a technique used by medicine to document electrical activity in the skeletal muscles. This study only confirms what many have suspected for a number of years. The nervous system and motor neurons are important to strength building. Heavy loads are a more effective means of producing a desired response from a particular stimulus. Multiple theories have been developed which include the increased firing rates of motor neurons, motor unit synchronization, and decreased muscular co-activation agonist-antagonist muscles. If nerve impulses and motor neurons could be manipulated in a particular manner this could improve sports performance and lead to cures neurological diseases. Strength does not only come from the muscles. Evidence suggests that it is also neurologically based.

Why Strength Depends on More Than Just Muscle : Neural Adaptations Could Account For Differing Strength Gains Despite Similar Mass

Psychology Today : Battle of the Sexes

The Battle of the Sexes

There have been arguments that men are biologically and physically superior  to women. This has been proven false, because scientifically it has been proven that ” biological superiority” does not exist. Men and women are biologically, anatomically, and physiologically  different . This does not indicate a superior or inferior sex. Science reveals much about the battle of the sexes in terms of physical abilities and biology. The Psychology Today article does claim there is no clear winner in terms of the battle of the sexes. However, from an evolutionary and health perspective women are the winners. They are more likely to live longer compared to men. Women are in this regard not a weaker sex. Other measures such as intelligence quotient (IQ) are not a reliable measure. While the other scientific statements can be verified, measuring intelligence may not sustain the rigors of the scientific method. Psychologists are still debating what is intelligence. There exists health disparities among the sexes that are due to both environment and biology. There is no stronger sex, yet women are winners in the test of survival.

        Men have more physical strength on average. The difference has to do with the amount of free testosterone in the male body. This cause a difference in body composition resulting in a greater percentage of muscle mass. Muscles are not the only contributor to physical strength, it also includes bones, ligaments, and tendons. Muscle cells are the same for both men and women the difference is amount. Women retain higher fat levels no matter what their body type is. Males have a greater number of type II fast switch muscle fiber, which allows for more explosive power during a physical task. Until the onset of puberty, there is no difference in physical strength. When puberty starts women’s bodies gain more adipose tissue from estrogen and progesterone.

Women do not have the strength spurt that males gain during puberty. Both sexes have growth spurts during these years. Girls have their growth spurt earlier meaning they will for awhile be taller than boys. Between the ages 9 to 14 girls are growing faster than boys. Boys experience growth slower. The first stage happens around the age of 10, but there is a dramatic shift around the age of 13. The largest growth spurt happens around two years after puberty. The last growth spurt happens at the end of puberty. Between these two growth spurts the strength spurt increases muscle mass and broadens the shoulders. The largest disparity between physical strength in the body between males and females is in the upper body. Women are closer to men in the lower body, but not stronger in that area. Men have an estimated 50% more muscle mass in the lower body and 66% more in the upper body. The average woman’s body is estimated to be at least 35% muscle weight compared to men’s 50%.

Olympic Records in Weight Lifting – Maximum Lifts
Date Event Sex Achieved Name Category
2012 Snatch F 151kg Tatiana Kashirina 75kg+
2012 Clean & Jerk F 187kg Zhou Lulu 75kg+
2012 Total F 333kg Zhou Lulu 75kg+
2016 Snatch M 216kg Behdad Salimi 105kg+
2004 Clean & Jerk M 263kg Hossein Rezazadeh 105kg+
2016 Total M 473kg Lasha Talakhadze 105kg+
Highest Male Record Below Women’s Maximum
2000 Snatch M 138kg Halil Mutlu < 56kg
2012 Clean & Jerk M 177kg Óscar Figueroa < 62kg
2012 Total M 327kg Kim Un-guk < 62kg

This explains the difference in athletic performance. However, it should be realized that strength is not solely determined by biological sex. Age, genetics, health condition, and training method are also important factors. Women respond to training stimuli and can benefit from improved health. The reason why women  would have higher rates of osteoporosis is due to the fact that they have lower bone density. As a person ages they lose both muscle and skeletal mass. This could be more severe for a woman as she ages, Strength training can reverse such issues and preserve bone health. It is not impossible for a woman to be stronger than a man. It is unlikely that a woman would reach the same level of strength as a man on the same training program. This has to do with starting point. If males have lower body fat and more muscle prior to training this means their physical fitness capacity would be higher. If women natural strength is lower, that means they would be behind in terms of attempting to reach the same out put. Then there is the consideration of size. Men are taller and have larger frames, which correlates to housing more muscle on skeletal frame. Women relative to their size can see an improved level of strength.

Women’s muscles can experience hypertrophy, just not to the same degree as men. All men are obviously not stronger than all women. A woman who strength trains can at least reach or surpass the strength level of an average man. Somatotypes vary among both men and women. A woman with a mesomorphic body type could see far greater strength gains compared to a woman with an ectomorphic body type. While the weakest men are still stronger than the weakest women, it would seem unlikely that they could be stronger than the strongest woman.

It is clear that men do not have a monopoly on physical strength. The difference is in total amount of muscle composition. The difference means that there are some health implications.  Women will have a harder time losing weight and obesity could be a higher health risk for women. Men may be stronger, but that does not indicate superiority.

        Men have greater cardio vascular reserve compared to women. Lungs and the heart are bigger, which means greater lung volume per body mass. Men compared to women have a higher red blood cell count including higher hemoglobin. This means men can run faster than women. Oxygen is a crucial component to aerobic fitness and hemoglobin contributes to the transport. The difference in running speed is not only related to specific organs, it has to do with pelvic structure. Women’s wider pelvis reduce speed compared to men. Endocrinology and the changes in puberty also effect women’s fitness. A smaller heart means less blood is pumped. Women’s hearts are about 25% smaller compared to men’s hearts.

Men may also be able to run faster longer. Although men and women have the same muscles in the legs, the muscular composition is still more in the male lower body. Women have the advantage in terms of fat acting as an energy source. This becomes useful in ultramarathon events. While women can build impressive legs which aid in running men contain an estimated 80% muscle mass composition in the legs compared to women’s 60%. That 30% difference correlates to a slower run speed for women. The Vo2 max is even lower for females who are sedentary compared to men who are also.

There are differences in circulatory system health that effect women in different ways. Heart disease is a major health concern for both men and women as they age. Seeing as women live longer this means that the risk factor increases. Women’s heart disease occurs often later in life and can go undetected. Coronary heart disease in the United States claims men and women in equal numbers. This is related to weight, diet, and health habits. The reason there is a slight disparity in diagnosis is that most of the medical studies on heart disease were done on men.  Women do have lower blood pressure which gives them a level of protection from cardiovascular diseases prior to menopause. Women who do suffer heart attacks on average have them by age 70.

Many aliments can be avoided by a change in exercise and eating habits. The major problem is that many people are not getting enough physical activity. It is clear that too much sitting and inactivity has negative effects on the circulatory system.

         Mental health is just as important as physical health. There appears to be a disparity between men in women in this regard. Women are least likely to suffer from anti-social personality disorder, autism, tourette’s  syndrome,  and psychopathy . Men are least likely to suffer from depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD, and eating disorders. There seems to be questionable data in this regard. Examination within the US military demonstrates that both men and women can suffer PTSD at high rates. It should also be noted that the suicide rate among men is higher compared to women. This statistic could be distorted mainly because men often choose the most violent method to kill themselves compare to women. Men may be experiencing more psychological distress than what is reported. Cultures that value hyper machismo teach boys and men to suppress their  emotions, which could be deleterious to their mental health. The expression of dolorous emotion in such cultures causes men who do to be seen as weak or unstable. Women are free to express a wider range of emotions or feelings, because it fits within the gender cultural stereotype. Mental health does have biological causes, but environment can have an immense impact on well being. The problem also is that their is a stigma surrounding such illnesses. Eating disorder such as anorexia,bulimia, and binge eating are higher in women. This has more of an environmental basis with eating disorders being more prevalent in Western culture. The obsession with image and in particular the thin body type has caused these disorders to increase. It is more common in teenage girls and young women who at that stage in their live value physical attractiveness. The consumption of mass media images that present one version of the female body has caused women distress. It has only been a recent development that medical professionals are taking mental health seriously.

             Intelligence has been a constantly debated and controversial topic in psychology. One issue is the idea that intelligence can be measured. There continues to be bias against women and other ethnic groups in this regard. At one time it was claimed that men were smarter than women. Such claims like the correlation between race and intelligence have proven to be nothing more than pseudoscience. It is doubtful that intelligence can measured by a test or scale. Unlike scalars or vectors IQ may not even be a fixed  unit. Psychology and other sciences have not produced a specific definition for intelligence. It is at best a hypothetical construct. This is why the statement ” it has been suggested that the variance (or spread) in IQ scores is greater in men.” The text continues : “if this is true, there should be more men than women with an exceptionally high IQ.” This revelation written then claims that women should have less learning disabilities. Intelligence can vary from person to person and even putting it in a graphical set of data is a problem. To get a precise measure we would need to know what exactly intelligence is. Also all individuals who take such tests would need to have the same education level. The literacy rates of women are lower globally compared to men. Throughout human history women were denied access to an equal education and it was only in the 20th century that this was reversed. There still remains a disparity in education among the sexes.

It is not that girls are less intelligent or have learning disabilities. There is discrimination and societal pressure that holds them back.
The claim is that the majority of the population fall into a normal distribution of IQ scores.

Realizing this, the concept of IQ cannot survive the rigors of the scientific method. There are psychometric, cognitive, and  cultural theories of intelligence. The first IQ test was developed by Alfred Binet . The term IQ was only developed in 1914 by William Stern. Lewis Terman developed the IQ concept further by standardizing the Binet’s test for the US. These tests were developed around the period of eugenics and pseudoscientific biological racism. Sexism also was a part of this and a common falsehood was that women were not as intelligent as men. Male brains are contain larger volume, while it has been suggested that women have more cortical thickness. The brains of individuals vary regardless of sex, but this does not indicate men have more intelligence. Male and female brains are capable of great amounts of intelligence. Measuring it is may not be possible. Unlike height , which can be measured and defined ( the average man in America 175.8 cm tall compared to 162 cm for women)  intelligence seems more like an abstraction.


The brain is a complex organ that is involved in thoughts,problem solving, emotions, motivation, and organ function. Human evolution demonstrated that the genus homo species has been developing intelligence for millions of years. Intelligence being a measurable inherited unit  lacks cogency.  Saying men are more intelligent than women is not scientifically correct. While the root of intelligence could be based in the neo cortex  and frontal lobe, there is no method to measure it. IQ tests only show how well a person takes exams or which subjects they are more knowledgeable about.

         Women have an advantage when it comes to fighting infectious diseases. Women contain more white blood cells and produce  at a faster rate more antibodies. This is an advantage men do not have. What leukocytes do is act as a protector and guard for the body against infectious diseases or possibly harmful foreign substances.The body is strengthened by this.


There are multiple types of white blood cells which include lymphocytes, monocytes, basophil, eosinphil, and neutrophil. The body can be stronger in more ways than one. It seems women have the ability to handle disease better compared to men at least in terms of immune response. The preconception would be that men would be better at handling such infectious diseases or viruses. What is colloquially referred to as “man flu” may not be fiction. This means that women’s immune systems may be more robust compared to their male counterparts. Wrong is the assumption that just because men would have more physical strength, they would be better biological survivors. There is more than just one type of strength.

The reason women have this advantage could be related to microRNAs. These pieces of genetic material are responsible for silencing particular genes. The X chromosome which has microRNA located on it may give women an edge in terms of the immune system response. There could also be an explanation based on endocrinology. This research is still relatively new, so many elements are still unclear. Women survive trauma better, which could be rooted in a long evolutionary past.

       Men can father children into old age. Women’s reproductive capability ends with menopause. The reason for this is based on millions of years of primate evolution. According to Darwin’s theory of evolution there are traits that are naturally selected. The goal of organisms is to reproduce offspring so that certain genes and traits can be spread. Charles Darwin did not understand the mechanism that caused traits to spread. It was not until the science of genetics mad such understanding possible. Men have a reproductive advantage in this regard being able to father children in advanced age. Women have an advantage due to the fact they actually give birth. X  linked recessive disorders are rare in women . However, it appears that boys are more fragile at birth. Infant mortality is higher for boys compared to girls. This can be reduced through changes in healthcare,however it can still exist in developed nations. Nature may have made men more expendable, because female reproduction was just too important. Women have to keep the species going in this respect. The text is taking its analysis from an evolutionary psychological perspective. Environment cannot be ignored either. Psychological traits according to this perspective evolved out of adaptations in relation to natural selection and sex selection. This may explain behaviors such as promiscuity or human courtship behavior. Our ancestors adapted reproductive strategies for survival and some of these behaviors can be see today. The problem is observation and experimental procedure. It  is unknown how early humans behaved compared to modern humankind. This difference between male and female fertility does have an evolutionary basis.

       Environment does determine health outcomes. It is not only genetics that are a factor for why men have lower life expectancy. The gap is closing in developed countries to a degree with men being less involved in physical labor and women engaging in unhealthy habits. Smoking and drinking are still done, even when there is public knowledge of the health risk. Women may live longer as the article points out simply because they do not take as many risks. This translates to areas in the workforce that are considered dangerous. The military, police, construction, and firefighting are examples in which women’s total numbers are low. Discrimination is not the only answer, it has to do with choice. Women are not willing to risk danger to the same degree. Then there is biology. Physically demanding occupations require a certain level of fitness. Women would have to train harder to reach a particular fitness level compared to men that have more natural strength.

This would mean a difference in attrition rates in such physically demanding occupations. Despite the physiological and biological differences women have been able to become a part of such professions. Training can improve women’s performance. If is a matter of training, why are there not more women in these professions ? Some of this has to be based on an element of evolutionary psychology. There may be an instinctual drive that alerts women not to take risk. If survival depended on reproduction of the species, taking unnecessary risks was not worth it. There also could be an evolutionary psychological explanation of why more women are not involved in the fields of science and information technology. Women can be just as intelligent as men, however there may be certain way the male brain is wired. Men may have more of a preference for mechanical and technological related topics, because building was part of their evolutionary past. Traditionally, women have been excluded from such professions and unequal amounts of education, put them at a disadvantage. This also translates to human health. Having inadequate healthcare, limited hospitals, or a reduction of reproductive rights negatively effects health outcomes. then there could be public health crisis that effect an entire population. An epidemic or pandemic could effect life expectancy. Drug addiction outbreaks such as the opioid issue in the US is currently reducing life expectancy. A dramatic change in environment can change health outcomes.

           The article concludes with the statement that “so at least in biological terms,there is no clear winner between the sexes. Considering that data known and what has yet to be learned that may not be an accurate conclusion. Women have more durational strength. Men’s greater physical fitness capacity would indicate they would be biologically stronger, but total life expectancy tells otherwise. Sex differences do influence health or possible illness. Women consistently show that they are survivors in many cases. Women even outlive men when conditions are stable. From a biomedical standpoint there does not exist a stronger sex, but it seems women win the test of longevity.

Nature does not dictate a battle of the sexes, because compatibility was needed for survival. Women’s durability was to ensure that off spring would be successful in the environments in which early primate species lived.  Humanity now has reached a level in which it can manipulate its own health and biology. The rise of antibiotics, scientific surgery, and a genetic understanding of disease has vastly improved health outcomes. Men still lag behind in terms of life span. Many women also have medical issues in regards to breast cancer and access to contraception. The author Neel Burton has a background medicine, seeing as he is a psychiatrist. Psychiatrists are not the same as psychologists, because they take a medical perspective on mental illness with the belief it can be cured. Burton should realize that women from a biological view would be the winners, based on the rate of survival. This does not mean one sex is biologically superior . Misogynists often claim that the biological and physiological differences of women mean they are inferior. Difference is not an indication of inferiority. Sexual dimorphism is the product of evolution and environmental adaptation. Scientifically there is no way to test for biological inferiority or superiority. What can be concluded is that women might be stronger than previously thought.

Psychology Today : Battle of the Sexes

Why Getting Physically Stronger Will Help You Live Longer

Strength and Health

As the body ages it goes through a number of changes in its organ systems. The muscular system, skeletal system, and nervous system do change with senescence. Disease and age related conditions can be common, but there is a method that can maintain quality health.  Strength training can help maintain a healthy body. It is more than just a training method for elite athletes. This is more than a fitness fad, but a possible method to avoid chronic illness. The changes that occur in the human life cycle. Seeing as the average life expectancy will increase, it is pivotal to be mindful of health. This is important for women who on average will outlive men. There are normally more women who reach old age compared to males. There are health differences among the sexes, which have implications for the future. Biological and physiological differences must be accounted for when examining health. Women often would avoid strength training for fear of getting bigger, yet this has changed. Women can still see benefits form training.  Strength training should be a major part of a person’s fitness regimen. There has finally been a scientific investigation into how building strength is critical to general health.

      As the human body ages it loses its physical strength. The majority of people reach their physical fitness peak between the  ages  of 20 to 39. This also is influenced by a number of genetic factors and health habits. Some of the decline can be reversed with doing weight training later in life. It is never too late to start. Ectomorphs compared to mesomorphs would probably see a larger loss in muscular strength. Starting out with less means loss in muscle mass would have a larger impact. Those with endomorphic body types may struggle to maintain a healthy weight. The other  factor is diet. The prevalence of  high amounts of sugar and fats is contributing to poor health. Extreme declines in strength happen in the octogenarians and nonagenarians. There comes weight loss and frailty which effects the body as a whole. Decreased mobility, loss of balance, and possibly disability can occur.  Elderly people are at risk of falls, which could result in major bone injuries. Fatigue and slower walking are also symptoms of physical frailty.

Physical activity is not just for the young. Older people should incorporate exercise into their daily routines. 

Gerontologists and biologists have suspected that aging is the result of  particular factors. Mitochondria as the human body lives become weaker with the passage of time. This organelle in the cells of the human body is a valuable power source. Cells are the building blocks of organ systems. A change in mitochondria would mean as we age decreased levels of stamina, strength, and endurance. The body goes through metabolic changes with age. Chromosomes are also effected with age. The enzyme known as telomerase is responsible for repair and maintenance of caps on the ends of chromosomes. This plays a role in cell division and when telomerase can no longer be produced in the same amount, mitosis is effected.

info_telomeres     Telomerase has to build telomeres so that it can prevent shortening by adding DNA each time a cell divides. There are mechanisms in place to maintain and control cell growth throughout a life time. This also provides an explanation into the production of cancer cells. Tumors that appear on the human body occur when telomeres are too active. Cells replicate alone with no supervision. Each time a cell divides telomeres become shorter, which lead to cell death. There are only so many times that the body can do this over long life span.



It is hard to image that the body is made of a multitude of cells. The human body functions like an organic machine. 

There are changes that occur both on the genetic and organ system level. The endocrine changes with age means that testosterone will decrease in males and estrogen in females. Testosterone plays a role in muscular hypertrophy so the strength loss would be more dramatic in males. The endocrine system difference in terms of hormones has an implication for physical fitness between males and females. Men have greater strength due to higher levels of free testosterone. Women produce more estrogen and progesterone which allows for more storage of fat. This means women would have a harder time losing weight or fighting obesity. Muscle has the ability to burn more fat. Besides this difference in health, the skeletal system changes with age. The effects of puberty increase male bone density, where this spurt of strength does not occur in females. This means women would be at higher risk for osteoporosis. If women have lower bone density and bone mass decreases with age this becomes a serious health risk . Strength training can be a means of maintaining  and building bone mass. Women need weight training because of this biological and physiological difference.

Women have more durational strength. This means they can live longer compared to males even when the environment is perfectly stable for both sexes. While women do not have the same physical strength levels as a man who engages in the same activity women can build strength. The article claims that “bulking up is a myth.” Women are capable of muscular hypertrophy it is not to the same extent as a man. The term “bulky” does not accurately describe the transformation of the body through weight training. Women respond to training stimuli, however the difference is in starting point. If men have a different body composition it would seem as if they gain at a faster rate. This is not true, it appears that way because the amount of muscle in their bodies prior to training is higher. Women who have less to start with gain at a similar rate. Some muscle may be good for the female body. Strength training can prevent skeletal diseases that could effect mobility. There is still more to be learned about these developments in health science and biology, but studies and data are providing some clues.

         Two studies from the British Medical Journal revealed that lack of  muscular  strength could be a strong indicator of mortality. It claimed this even when other health factors were adjusted  as well as for cardiorespiratory fitness. A total of 30 studies were conducted using people who were in their 70s. Only five people under the age 60 were used in the study. Researchers measured bench press strength, grip strength, walking speed, chair rising speed, and standing balance. What they concluded was that poor performance in any of these categories increased the possibility of early mortality. Before one takes the study as fact, these results would have to be replicated. Another problem arises when sex differences are not factored into the experiment. It should be clear that women’s performance on upper body tasks would be considerably lower. Hand grip strength does not seem like the best measure to be using. If that measure were to be included, by obvious logic men should be living longer than women. Male hand grip strength is on average greater than women’s.


man-and-woman-strength col1

This does not translate to functional strength. Although it does suggest provide a basic estimate of physical strength capabilities. The weakest woman is still weaker than the weakest man. The strongest woman does not reach the highest levels of male strength. The charts above are not as accurate at measuring absolute strength. While it did produce a result that was expected with the female athlete having close to or equal strength of an average male, it is possible that men could generate more force simply because their hands are bigger. A woman who participated in the study may have more functional strength, but may have failed to generate more force in the study conducted by the Journal of Applied Physiology. That study used handballers rather than weightlifters. Looking at weight lifting records may be more accurate compared to grip strength. While the studies from the British Medical Journal do use bench press as a measure this also causes another problem. Men have more upper body mass and a larger skeletal frame. That means the data would be distorted, because even physically fit women cannot not match the upper body strength of a man who is on the same training regimen. Women who could be of various fitness levels still live longer than men. The study referenced to only examined men, but did not do the same for women. It is possible that a man who is physically weak could outlive one that is very strong. There are many factors that influence longevity which include genetics, general health condition, diet, environment,  and the amount of physical activity an individual gets.  This can also hold true for women.

It would be hard to predict which one of these women would live the longest. Using strength solely would not provide precision. 

Factors related to environment can be just as essential. Access to reliable healthcare and a healthy diet can increase health outcomes. Men’s health outcomes may be lower due to sociological factors. On average, the male suicide and homicide rate is higher. This is another factor related to surroundings rather than biology. Muscular strength may not be the best indicator of future morality. Standing balance, chair rising speed and walking speed seem to be better in that regard. They give better measurements of functional strength and movements. The British Medical Journal could be rushing to conclusions. At worse it making a generalization based on a sample. Simply being strong and building strength does not automatically mean a person will live longer. What getting stronger can do is improve quality of life and physical fitness condition. Implying it can be some form of life extension is a bit of an exaggeration.

       There is no doubt that weight training can improve health. There is the claim mentioned that weight training can add six to seven years on to one’s life, but this should also be questioned. Everyone does not respond the same to a particular training regimen. Health condition varies among people. Genetically inherited diseases or other conditions can effect human life span. However, it seems that exercise is capable of mitochondrial rejuvenation. Resistance training can induce the activation of satellite cells. This initiates gene shifting in which can revive mitochondria. It appears the even older muscles if worked can be turned back physiologically, genetically, and biochemical. Telomerase  production can be maintained by exercise. There is also a link to production of antioxidants. These are molecules that stop the damage that could be done by free radicals. They are mostly found in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants include vitamins A, C. E, Lycopene, selenium, lutein,  beta-carotene  and many other molecules. There is also indication that exercise can stop cognitive decline. The reason may be that a healthy circulatory system can protect the brain. Stroke, heart disease, and high cholesterol can cause major health issues across the  body. When there is a disturbance in the arteries of the brain, this could cause dementia. Specifically multi-infarct dementia develops from blood clots that cause blockage in the blood vessels of the brain. The result is reduced oxygen to the brain causing death of tissue.

Brain arteries


The circulatory system functions like a highway. If there is a clot, that is the equivalent of a traffic accident. The problem is that there is no alternative route. If cars were to just keep piling up it would be a chronic mess. The blood supply being moved does not have an alternative path adding to the complications. Maintaining a healthy circulatory system is essential to overall health.  Heart disease and high blood pressure become more of a health risk  if one’s diet consists of fat and sugar based foods. Inactivity contributes along with poor diet. Exercise is not only important to longevity, but also quality of life. Weight training is just one type of exercise that can improve health.

     It should be realized that these studies do not mean weight training is the best form of exercise. The articles suggests that all forms of exercise are not equal. Yet, any amount is better than none at all. A training regimen depends on what one wants to accomplish in their fitness goals. This does not mean weight training should be the only form of exercise performed. Walking, aerobics, or running could be options. Although too much of one form or the other could cause problems or the possibility of over training. Doing aerobics does not increase muscle. Doing cardio does not burn fat as effectively. If a person is sticking to one exercise, they are neglecting other elements of physical fitness. There are some misconceptions that need to be addressed. Healthcare and medical professionals suggest that seniors avoid strenuous activity, yet seniors should exercise with in their limits. An exercise session does not have to mimic an Olympic athlete’s. Elders benefit from gene shifting, which means improvements in health. There are also benefits to mental health, which fight depression. While physical health is important, mental health biomedical science has now realized is just as critical. There is a link between exercise and the release of endorphins, which can improve a person’s emotional state.

Women have the most to benefit from strength training. There remains a fear of looking “too muscular” which prevents women from engaging in weight training. Appearance is a matter of preference and its should not be dictated by society’s standards. Women should not fear having some muscle on their bodies. No one just looks like a professional bodybuilder by just lifting weights casually. It also is the same for any other sport. Giving women basketballs does not automatically turn them into SKylar Diggins Smith , There are women with the capability to gain more than others, but this is not a characteristic that should be condemned. The point of exercise is too improve health, not for the purpose appearance. Women must learn to overcome body image issues for the sake of their mental and physical health.

The great aspect about a new emphasis om fitness and physical activity is that it is now acceptable for women to be active. While its been proven weight training can improve elements of health and fitness it is still questionable that it can make people live longer. If this were so, there would have to be an experiment conducted in nations with either  high and low life expectancy. There are numerous reasons why life expectancy increased globally since 1970. Medical advancements such as the end of defeat of smallpox and the development of the artificial heart  as well as organ transplants are few examples. State healthcare systems and improved public health measures have contributed to improving world health. Yet, there are challenges such as global pandemics like AIDS or antibiotic resistant bacteria. Many countries around the world do not have the economic resources to provide a functioning healthcare system or adequate hospitals. Socioeconomic status also effects health, with people in poverty struggling to afford medical care.


Japan has the highest average life expectancy, with the the highest portion of centenarians. If the hypothesis is correct, if weight training was part of the average Japanese citizen’s life, the life span should go beyond the age 100. The study would not just involve males, but females. They should be study closely, seeing as on average women tend to live longer. Knowing this, it would mean a change could be seen if such an experiment were to be conducted. If the average life expectancy of a Japanese woman citizen is 86.1 years, that should increase if the assumption weight training can make a person live longer. Then a comparison should be made with countries with the lowest life expectancy.  Afghanistan and Chad have some of the world’s lowest life expectancy which is calculated below fifty years of age. Here is the trouble with making an experiment. Certain aspects would have to be controlled to get a precise set of data. Environments would have to be favorable meaning the same level of public health, be free of warfare, and functional medical facilities. The subjects would have to be of a similar health condition. South America’s nations have life expectancy that is either high or low. Conducting the experiment on this continent  may produce a result that may give a precise answer.  Weight training may improve health, but how long you live also depends on other factors. Genetics can be an element including environment. Then lifestyle choices and health habits can alter the condition of health over a lifetime. An individual that engages in smoking, excessive drinking, or overeating is increasing their risk factors for chronic illness. While it can be debated that  simply getting stronger will increase your lifespan, it is a method of preventing diseases of the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, and nervous system.

Why Getting Physically Stronger Will Help You Live Longer

Self-Defense : Physical Differences Regarding Training

Physical Differences Regarding Training

Self-defense for women is critical. Just learning techniques is not enough, but understanding how sports performance can be applied to a person’s protection. There are physical differences in biology, anatomy, and physiology that must be considered when embarking on a training program. There has to be practical considerations if women are to successfully defend themselves against an attacker. Prevention is important, but this sometimes is out of an individual’s control. If the average male has a higher physical fitness capacity, it would be best for women to incorporate other forms of fitness training to ensure personal safety. The text explains the differences from a perspective of kinesiology and biomechanics . While author does mention the differences in the skeleton and muscular system, the respiratory system is also essential in physical activity. The sports performance element should be considered when developing training programs for women.

            The major difference between male and female bodies is the skeleton. Men have greater bone density and this contributes to strength. The pelvis is wider due to being equipped for gestation. This explains why the sacrum is much larger. This makes the distance between the right can left hip greater. This cause the femurs in the female body to be more angled. This explains why women  genu valgum pathologies. Knee and ankle problems are common among female athletes. this had implications on women attempting to do kicking motions.

Men seem to have more genu varum issues. Any one with such issues should develop an exercise program that does not strain joints to an extreme degree. Puberty also changes the bone structure. The female body becomes more lax in terms of joint stability. This limits neuromuscular control of lower extremities. The knee joints will rotate inward when weight is applied adding more pressure to ligaments and tendons. This puts women at risk at higher rates anterior  cruciate ligament tears. What this generally means is that differences in the skeleton produce a unique female hip and leg mechanics. However, some differences come later in the human life cycle. Girls until age nine have more lumbar flexibility. This ends when males gain more lumbar extension and women acquire more lateral felxion.

 This cannot account for all of the disparity. It seems that women are using more of their internal hip rotation. Male joints are not reliant on flexion and extension. The reason the human walk is different between the sexes is different to the skeletal structure. Women walk with more more pelvic movement and reduced width in step. This explains why women run slower than men is due to the shape of the pelvis. Mechanically a large pelvis is not the best for running speed. The differences in q angle also create the difference.

Knowing that a large portion of power comes from the core and the hip, this has implications in women’s total power out put. The text does make an error. Women’s throwing ability is not entirely related to body structure. Girls on average, are not taught to throw like boys. The only difference in female throwing is that it would lack the force of a man. The reason being is that males have more upper body strength. A larger upper body means more space for muscle mass creating the difference. Boys and girls could theoretically be taught the same technique and throw  in a similar fashion at least until the changes brought on by puberty. The concept of “throwing like a girl” may not even exist.

gender throws
This may not be entirely biologically based.  Assuming this example is of children prior to the age of thirteen, there should not be significant differences in the skeleton. This seems to be technique based because the girl is one using her forearm, rather than the boy who uses his whole body.

Inward knee rotation makes the base of the female body more unstable. A strong core and hips contribute to striking power. A power strike originates from the hips to the core and follows to the shoulder. The final product will be the punch that is generated. If the body is not ground like a root, the legs will just act as shock absorbers. The skeleton is the base for the human body. This means that women’s punches and kicks would have to be performed in a manner that is effective without causing injury during execution. One consideration that the author does not mention is the difference in hand size. Men have larger hands on average compared to women’s. If this is the case women have smaller fighting tools to work with. Punches can still hurt depending on where you are hit. Striking spots are critical to remember is such a dire situation arises. The differences in biomechanical function must be recognized in developing an effective training program.

            Muscular strength also can contribute to self-defense. There are differences in body composition, metabolism, and speed of muscular contraction. Male muscles have greater power out put and in terms of anaerobic metabolism a higher capacity. The difference in muscular strength may make it more difficult for women to defend themselves. Men’s larger size and endocrinology means they are on average stronger than women. The muscle cells of men and women do not differ; the amount of muscle fibers make the disparity vast. The weakest male could still have more strength than an unfit woman. Men have more type II muscle fibers, while women have more type I. Training can reverse some of this, but it does not close the gap entirely. A woman and man who train on the same regimen will not see similar fitness results. While women do increase in strength, they still retain higher levels of body fat. This difference may be the largest obstacle the only solution is to incorporate some weight training into a self-defense program.  The article makes a excellent point stating ”   women can pack a very powerful punch this way they still will not match the physical strength of men.” There should be a level of caution and thought when in a dangerous situation the author reveals : “standing toe to toe and duking it out with an enemy larger and stronger than them is just plain stupid.” The idea is just to defend one’s self, not pulverize them similar to an MMA match. There are other factors to consider. Every attacker will not be a hulking brute or have the same level of fighting skill. If the male attacker is physically weaker it would be simple to defend one’s self. If the attacker is stronger, the best method is to figure out a means of escape.

If this man was attempting to attack, this woman’s best defense would be to run or escape.

An attack from this man would not be successful.

Skill is also important, because simply just being strong does not mean you can defend yourself automatically. Certain martial arts disciplines such as judo do not require immense amounts of strength. What it does is it uses body weight and gravity against a bigger opponent. Depending on what martial arts disciple is learned, it is possible to overcome larger opponents. There are multiple fighting forms which include karate,  aikido, ju jitsu, and kick boxing. If trained in these fighting styles it may close some of the gap in the strength difference in terms of self-defense. If an attack had the same training, then this could be problematic.

Training in body motion and developing strength can alter the differences that are based on anatomy and physiology. Women must train on a regular basis to see effective results. This require the use of proper drills and instruction. Women are not at a complete disadvantage. Their muscular endurance is higher compare to men. Although there is a difference in power generation, their function under work can last longer. There are other factors that are involved in muscular strength. Genetics, health condition, and somatotype play a role. Women vary in this physical fitness spectrum. There may be women who find it easier to be a fighter simply, because they have their unique physical advantage on their side. Women with ectomorphic body types find it difficult to make significant strength gains. This should not discourage them from making efforts to learn self-defense.

Having some strength would not hurt. To ensure maximum protection a combination of both skill and strength will help. Women’s bodies on average carry 35 % muscle compared to the average male’s 50%. This varies depending on health, the function of the MTSN gene, and size. A larger woman will have more strength than a smaller man simply because her skeleton can house more muscle. It is not impossible for a woman through training to boost physical strength and muscular levels. A woman can see an increase in physical strength to at least 40 % if weight training is consistent. Muscular hypertrophy functions in the same way in the female body. The muscular system of women is the same, but some differences make it harder for them to reach a particular fitness level.

If the core essential to fighting muscles of that area must be trained. This can negate some of the upper body disparity. It does not completely make it disappear. A man can still have slightly more upper body strength even if the height and weight are the same. The estimate is that women are 63% weaker in the upper body and 27% weaker in the lower body. Women are closer to men in the lower body. A large portion of men”s muscle fibers and androgen receptors at located in that area of the upper body. This has implications when fighting with your fists.

Punches may not be as powerful compared to a man’s,but they can still hurt of done correctly. Women would need to build upper body strength, This would be more of a challenge considering the differences between male and female physiques.Women’s punching techniques need to be modified to be more efficient to maximize damage. Men put more power in using their opposite lead foot.This allows men to utilize the core more and have a stable base to work with.  Seeing as the female skeletal and muscular structure has some difference biomechanics must be approached form another manner. Punching the same way as a man would cause women’s hips to lock at the moment peak power could be used. Thus more effort is put in without the pull power projection. The best way as explained by the author is to step in on the same side as the leading foot, thus preventing a possible knee injury. Technique and a strong body can be useful, but there is one physical fitness element that should not be forgotten.

      Aerobic capacity is a fitness element that should be focused on. If the only option in a perilous situation is to run, cardiovascular fitness is necessary. This is one aspect of fitness more difficult to close a gap. The reason has to do with the size difference of the heart and lungs. Women’s smaller hearts and lungs means they have less oxygen reaching the muscle tissue. That means the average woman will run slower than the average man.

Women can improve running speed with the right training. Cardio exercises should be a small part of self-defense training. It seem rather odd that the text did not mention the respiratory system in regards to physical differences. The muscular and skeletal system are obvious points of examination when discussing self-defense. Women’s total VO2max is lower. Women also have lower hemoglobin levels. It may seem that there are limited advantages in terms of women’s respiratory capacity, yet evidence suggests that women have more endurance. It was reported in 2017 that women processed oxygen faster according to a study conducted by the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. This means women have possibly more endurance. Running slower may be a better trade off when running for long periods of time. Sometimes the best solution to an attack is to escape if possible or plot a route to safety.Fighting may not be the best response to every incident.

       There should also be an understanding about the mental aspects and situational considerations. It has to do with reactions and prevention as well as a particular mindset. there must be a level of confidence in movements when fighting. Being hesitant can cause a situation to be reversed. The problem the text suggest is that women may tend to think they can reason their way out of a violent situation. This is a mistake. Reaction time critical in such a situation and it make a difference. If one is being attacked it should be noted that it is a fight for survival and that anything should be done to keep safe. Biting or eye gouging can be effective. It is pivotal to know which areas of the body to strike If an attack is happening. Negotiation or  minimal attacks will only aggravate the assailant. Being as aggressive as possible ensures damage and success. Finding a skilled and qualified instructor who realizes that women have to be trained based on their sex differences can improve effectiveness.

Then there should be an emphasis on prevention. Many third wave feminists claim that teaching “men not to rape” is a practical solution. This notion is ludicrous, because violent aggressive  individuals are not so easily rehabilitated. It goes off the assumption that all men are predators and that it is only women who are sexually assaulted. Men and children can victims of sexual assault or rape. Custodial rape is common in US prisons and the Catholic Church remains  silent about the abuse of boys in its institutions. Using common sense can be the best key to protection. Walking alone late at night or in an unlit area is making yourself a target. Going to a party with the intention of becoming intoxicated also increases chances of attack. While the common counter argument is that women should be able to do these things as free individuals, it must be understood the world is a dangerous place. Having awareness of your surroundings and avoiding possible situations is imperative. Getting the proper instruction from a self-defense professional who understand the sports performance elements can help women learn how to defend themselves more effectively.

Self-Defense : Physical Differences Regarding Training