Carla Dunlap’s Workout Tips

Carla Dunlap a Ms. Olympia champ gives a demonstration of simple workouts from a video in 1984. These exercise do not require machines or free weights. Some exercises help with posture and back issues. Carla demonstrates rollbacks and how do use a simple towel to do simulated biceps curls. Carla also shows viewers how to do neck exercises as well.

Carla Dunlap’s Workout Tips

American Football

American football has become a popular sport in the United States. Its origins come from soccer. Soccer is called football internationally, which tends to confuse American sports fans. American football oddly enough began in the 19th century in Great Britain. There their is a game known as rugby, which would later become American football. A soccer player in Great Britain at a school in Rugby picked up a soccer ball with their hands. This is prohibited by the rules of soccer and from that one rule violation came a new game. The game of rugby reached the United States in 1871. This game from the British transformed into football. Now it is an American tradition being played in universities, public schools, and in professional sports leagues. This sport at first glance appears to be completely male dominated. However, there are women and organizations who are getting involved. While women’s football teams do not get exposure as the mainstream NFL league teams, it is a great development for the sport. Women are also becoming football fans in large numbers. This development has been happening for the past two decades. Despite domestic abuse cases, paid patriotism, and racism in league circles there are still loyal fans. These issues can be addressed with reform  in sports organizations.

       The history of  women in American football starts in 1974.  The Women’s Football League was formed with seven teams formed. The pay was low with players only getting $25 a game. Despite this, teams formed and came to play.  These teams included the Los Angeles Dandelions, Dallas Bluebonnets, Detroit Demons, Columbus Pacesetters, Fort Worth Shamrocks, and the California Mustangs. Since the 1970s the number of women playing tackle football has increased. The unfortunate reality is that there are not established professional leagues. Women’s amateur leagues have been growing in number over the past two decades. There are about 4,000 women who play tackle football in the United States. Local leagues can be expensive to join, but that does not stop dedicated players. Women come not for the financial rewards, because there no opportunities like in the National Football League.

   There still remains a cultural bias that football is a man only game. The game continues to be male dominated, however women began organizing to play a sport they also enjoy. As the years progressed women became part of high school and college football teams. Although small in number this was a testament to breaking barriers. Kathy Klope was a place kicker for the University of Louisville in the 1990s. At the time she was the only woman to play on a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A football team. Title IX stipulates that girls and women should be allowed to try out and play on boys  and men’s teams if there is not a division for girls. This would be sex discrimination and so girls were given opportunities to play on boys teams.

 A  news clip showing a girl in Junior high  playing on a football team 

This change did not come until the 1980s to 1990s.  The Beth Balsey case in New Jersey ruled that she had a right to play on her high school football team. The judge ruled in her favor in 1986. By 1994 it was reported that a total 328 girls were playing on US high school teams according to the National Federation  of the State High School Athletic Associations. The girls who have the athletic talent do not have professional leagues to go to as adults, so they may switch to another sport. The thousands of women now take part in amateur  leagues. There is a possibility as time progresses professional leagues will be more prevalent. There is the challenge of exposure and the decline in viewership of American football. The loss of viewers could be attributed to bad publicity surrounding domestic abuse and CTE  injuries. It could be that being more inclusive with women can repair the damage from such negative incidents.

It will take some years before women’s teams emerge to a level in which they are viewed as widely as the NFL games. There is progress. The Independent Women’s Football League was established in 2000 with a mission to “making the sport available to all women and girls who dream of playing the game. ” This non=profit organization helps with funding teams and organization. The IWFL wants to also “foster an environment of goodwill and sportsmanship.” The IWFL has been a helpful avenue for rising women football players attempting to play at elite levels.

      American football just like any other sport has rules. The teams consist of a total of eleven players, which can be alternated. Each team has the responsibility of starting a play on their side of the ball. Players can either be defensive or offensive in terms of position. The offensive players must be lined up in scrimmage. They are seven offensives, but the four of these must be lined up one yard behind the line scrimmage. One to four backs can move parallel to the line of scrimmage. The team that maintains the ball will be called the offense. The defense has the task of preventing the offense from scoring. The offense then has the task of advancing the ball 10 yards every four plays. If they are successful they will achieve a first down. The objective is to score and make touchdowns. The offensive team can lose possession of the football by fumbling (or dropping the ball), missing the field goal, getting tackled in the end zone for safety, kicking the ball to the defensive team, scoring, not getting 10 yards in four downs, and throwing the football to a defensive player for an interception.

02-NFL-lede-01.w710.h473  If players violate rules, they face penalties. Yards can be lost depending if the violation was by the defense or offense. Personal fouls can result up to 15 yards, while a majority are between 5 to 10 yards. There are numerous violations that can happen in a football game. The false start is when the offense moves prior to the snap. The snap is the moment in which movement is permitted. Offside violations happen when the offense or defense is on the wrong side of the scrimmage line at the time of the snap. A defensive player cannot make contact with an offensive player, because this would be encroachment. Holding another type of  violation is when a player grabs another without the ball. It is also illegal to grab a player’s facemask. Kickers  and passers are not allowed to be run into after the ball has been kicked.

The football field is about 120 yards long and 53 yards wide.  There are 100 yards apart goal lines. The field also has 10 yards of area in front and back called the end zone.

Intentional grounding happens when a passer throws the ball away from a receiver to avoid possible sacking. Other cases such as ineligible receiver downfield occurs when an offensive player is not eligible receiver and happens to be five yards downfield  from the line scrimmage during a forward pass. These are some of the common football infractions that can occur during a game. There are more possible penalties and violations, but these are the basic ones. The point of these rules is to maintain player safety and have fair competition. The referee must be extra vigilant to make sure all rules are enforced. Football has become a major element in US culture. Americans spend millions in total on products  and memorabilia of their favorite football teams. A common Thanksgiving tradition is to watch football and play some with family as well as friends. The sport has become part of American identity and a cultural icon.

References History. N.p., 6 June 2000. Web. 23 May 2017. <;.

Sherrow, Victoria. “Football.” Encyclopedia of Women and Sports. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1996. 104-05.

Garcia, Ahzia. “Inside the World of Women’s Tackle Football.” CNNMoney. Cable News Network, 13 Feb. 2017. Web. 23 May 2017. <;.

American Football

The Bikini Division: A Positive or Negative Development ?

The bikini division has emerged in strength sport competition and has generated controversy. There are claims that the relatively new category is just there as a sex sells method and that it is designed to phase out the traditional bodybuilding for women. Some have made the claim women got too extreme in appearance causing the move to a more acceptable mainstream model. The general public may never be accepting of women’s sport participation or sports such as these, but there seems to be factions in terms of aesthetic ideals. There is the group that favors a more muscular and larger appearance of the female bodybuilder. Other want a more classic image of the female bodybuilder of the 1970s and 1980s  when favoring physique and figure. Fitness was the outgrowth of women who did not favor neither of these models, but wanted to also demonstrate acrobatic skills and gymnastic skills in their routines. These women of the established divisions have made complaints that bikini is not even much of a competitive endeavor. To an extent they may be correct. It would be difficult to distinguish them from an average woman in a bikini or regular bikini model. Other observers claim this represents the death of female bodybuilding and is probably a negative development. This assessment is not entirely accurate. Bikini is still evolving and the female bodybuilding category still exists. There is one positive element is that more women are becoming involved in fitness sports. Some women enjoy the look of muscle so much that they even switch over to the physique and bodybuilding divisions. To comprehend bikini one must examine the attributes of the category. Its rise can be positive or negative depending on a fan’s perspective.

          Just like other categories the bikini competitors have judging rules. The first is balance and shape. There is no emphasis on muscle size or definition in particular. There still has to be symmetry presented in the physique that is presented on stage. Skin tone, poise, and complexion are parts of scoring. Overall presentation, which is pivotal to all categories is also part of the total score. These are the general guidelines by the National Physique Committee. These set of standards do seem nebulous, but competitors do seem to be able to present physiques through trial and error. Physique, fitness, and bodybuilder competitors claim that doing this category does not require that much training. That is not correct, because bikini competitors are doing some form of weight training.  The difference can be seen when on stage.

Bikini competitors appear leaner just like their bodybuilding, physique, and fitness counterparts. The same process applies to an extent. Cutting fat levels, exercise or training regimens are employed to produce a certain appearance. Bikini may favor women who are sleeker in body and do not have the ability to add size to the level of a physique or bodybuilder competitor. This does give more women a chance to compete who have the desire to do so. Navigating the often contradictory or unclear judging criteria seems to be a challenge for most competitors. Sports such as these are subjective which does cause some confusion. One  element that can be agreed on is that judging can be difficult to understand.

      One argument that persists is that bikini competitors so not have the look of an athlete. Depending on the sport that is played athletes can have various body types. A tennis player may not look like a weightlifter. The reason is they train for different physical activities. The argument seems to lacks cogency that their is one single athletic appearance. This applies to the bodybuilding sports. Muscle size, definition, conditioning , and symmetry varies among the classes.  When one compares a bikini competitor to the average bikini model there is a significant difference.

The women on stage are still defined, but not as large as figure, bodybuilding, or physique competitors. Bikini is relatively new, so it is still evolving. The sport for women as a whole seems to be doing that as well. The critics of bikini seem to forget the history of the sport. The first women bodybuilders of the 1970s  almost resemble the bikini competitors of today. As the years progress women’s physique did increase in size. The female bodybuilders  had a more lean sleeker look in the 1970s. The 1980s brought a more middle level amount of size as represented by Rachel Mclish and Carla Dunlap. The hypermuscular image was born in the the 1990s  with Bev Francis, by started earlier with Kay Baxter. The bikini division wants to resurrect the sleeker body  image.

These paradigms have varied over the years causing debates over aesthetics. When women entered bodybuilding there was objection to having them participate. They faced extra scrutiny for their looks . While there were men who embraced this new image, other who were more conservative repudiated women’s involvement. It was inevitable at some point the factions would develop new categories. The 1991 Ms. Olympia was the turning point in the debate. The fitness competitions emerged and the same criticisms were used against it. Later there was acceptance with some female bodybuilders switching over. Bikini competitors just have revived an other aesthetic of the 20th century.

        There is a negative aspect to the rise of this division. It could be used by the corporate gatekeepers mainly by the Weider Corporation to phase out female bodybuilding. This may be an attempt to present fitness for women as more marketable seeing as the popularity of standard female bodybuilding has declined. The end of the Ms. Olympia in 2014 demonstrated a decline, but not death. There are still bodybuilding contests for women although not as large in number. Another problem is that some longtime competitors feel that now pro-cards are so easily obtained with the multiple divisions available. The positive part about this is that more women can get involved in the bodybuilding sports. There are attempts to mainstream this underground sport. This does not seem feasible considering the popularity of football, basketball, and the Olympics. The idea that a new division can make this happen is misguided. The only reason it should be there is to give women a fair chance to compete who do not have the size for bodybuilding, figure, physique, or cannot perform the gymnastics of fitness competitions. Sports need divisions and weight classes for the sake of fair competition.

To a person attempting to find out more about the sport to can be confusing. A potential competitor may find it challenging to figure out which division is best for them to compete in. It would probably make more sense to do research before hand before just randomly selecting a division. The judges need to elucidate the differences and standards. Otherwise, it would make more sense just to call these weight classes. This confusion goes to a larger controversy in the sport for women.

           The size controversy continues to be an issue in the sport. Critics claim that when women got “too big” that caused the decline of the bodybuilding division and the rise of fitness, figure, and bikini. There could be some truth to this, however that is not the entire story. Women have never been fully accepted into sports. This is due to long term sexist prejudice and dated gender roles. The strength sports  cause problems for women who are either viewed as less feminine or “too extreme.” These criticisms are relative. To extreme conservatives women who pursue careers or independence are masculine. Thankfully, there are more open mined individuals. Women have to struggle in most sports to keep them going and expanding. There is a bias that effects each sport for women. The problem with bikini is that there are attempts to reduce it to merely a sex sells model. While the presentation of a muscular physique looks attractive to some, sexual objectification does not help the sport. The idea that if the women were smaller in muscle size that this would improve marketability is not proven. Women’s divisions have lower attendance and the athletes are less than their male counterparts. This was even true back in the golden age of female bodybuilding in the 1990s.  There is no reason for women to impose limitations on themselves just because society finds it inappropriate. There is no reason larger physiques cannot still be part of the fitness circle.

timthumb (1)The divisions as they are now could solve the size controversy. The split between fans and organizers can be mended as well as competitors. There should be a place for women of various fitness levels. Only if the sport is allowed to thrive and be promoted can this issue be resolved.

          The addition of bikini contests does not seem like a negative or positive development. It is still a neophyte division and gradually evolving. There is uncertainty to how it might develop in the distant future or its overall impact. There is at least a positive development among women. More are coming into the fitness world due to the opening of the division. Some even switch over to physique and bodybuilding wanting to reach a higher level. A new generation of women athletes are emerging. Women do not see physical fitness as male only or strange. There were vexed reactions to the additions of fitness and figure competitions. This soon dissipated as athletes proved themselves as talented. Those divisions are now accepted as part of the fitness community. Bikini should at least be given a chance. There will soon be competitors that will impress peers and fans alike putting to rest the debate. The best action women can do in the sport is to show solidarity. There should not be enmity  between divisions, but collaboration on certain issues. Unequal pay and limited coverage are problems that should involve every woman in the sport to challenge. Only then can women be fully integrated into a male dominated sport.

The Bikini Division: A Positive or Negative Development ?