A General Introduction to The History of Women in Sports

The World History Archive and Compendium

Before Title IX and the modern Olympics  women participated in sports. Women being athletes is not a recent phenomenon; there is a history dating back as far as ancient civilization. There were times in which women were prohibited from competition and in response formed games of their own. Normally, the historiography of sport focused on men’s participation and involvement in sports. Historians began to examine women’s involvement and the sociological and sex discrimination  issues in the 20th century. Due to the feminist movement women’s history and women’s studies were becoming part of university curriculum. While academia focused on women in politics, science, and the arts women in sports remained an ignored area. Sport historians began taking an interest when women’s numbers increased in sports. The 20th and the 21st century saw the highest participation of women in sports globally. Only 121 years ago women were not permitted to compete in…

View original post 3,884 more words


The Significance of Kale and Caulifla on Dragon Ball Super

Dragon Ball Super has reached a milestone of 101 episodes and it proves the franchise is as lively as ever. The anime and manga series has captivated audiences globally with its action and fascinating characters. The great addition to the Dragon Ball universe is the appearance of female super saiyans. For many years fans have only conceptualized this through fan art across the internet and now it is a reality. Women fighters were a rare occurrence in the series. The character Kale was dubbed by fans as the “female Broly.” As one can clearly observe this is more of a homage to a non-canon character. It seems their personalities are similar, however Kale may see some character development. This is an excellent choice, because it is essential that Kale develop to distinguish between two different characters in the Dragon Ball universe. Caulifla who is not a homage or reference to another character has been changing as well. This must continue to avoid the problem of tokenism that occurs in various forms of media. A female character should not be there just to placate some demand by fans or be a stock character. They should have critical roles and be a part of the action. The hope is that the series takes this into consideration. One aspect that should be praised about these characters, is that they were not afraid to have a unique character design. During their transformations they displayed powerful bodies and rarely do cartoons depict women with such a body type. Fan reactions to the characters are divided, but it seems overtime audiences will warm up to them. Criticisms mostly are directed at the power scaling and what some see as a marketing gimmick by Toei Animation.

        Kale when she is first introduced is a timid and rather low self-esteem individual. When Caulifla encouraged her to enter the Tournament of Power, she was plagued with self doubt. However, before she did reach the berserker super saiyan form when triggered emotionally. Just like Broly, she was uncontrollable and murderous. Caulifa was able to calm her down and prevented Cabba from possibly being killed. Kale again goes into her Legendary super saiyan  form during the tournament, but puts everyone at risk. Goku is the first victim of her assault, but Jiren then stops her. When Kale transforms the next time she has control. This shows a progression in character development. Kale is gradually going from a timid and uncertain individual to a confident person. When she saw Caulifla in distress, she realized a change had to be made. She was becoming tired of being a burden. Once Kale overcomes her insecurities she will be a self actualized individual. Her third time transforming was not just a physical one, it was a mental one. Kale did something Broly could never do and control the legendary super saiyan form.



This change in personality is a great development and adds depth to the character. Kale still has a long way to go in terms of mastery of this form, but it will be interesting to see where it leads. If Dragon Ball Super does this correctly would could see a very entertaining character. Kale may see a transformation from fear to fierce. It is uncertain where this arc will go, but hopefully the saiyans of universe 6 will survive.

       Caulifla stands out as unique character as well. She does fall into a “tough woman” stock character. These women characters are suppose to have an I don’t need anyone attitude and generally not very emotional. While it seems that Caulifla would fall into this one dimensional role the series changes this. Caulifla is very protective of Kale and despite what appears to be a harsh personality cares about her protege. She encourages and attempts to motivate Kale even when she doubts herself. At first she comes off as arrogant when first meeting Goku, but then begins to almost befriend him when fighting. The encounter was belligerent at first. She attempted to intimidate Goku with her new form. It had power, but lacked speed.

Caulifla_muscle_10 (1)

Caulifa versus Goku

Many Dragon Ball fans remember that Trunks attempted to use this form on Cell. While Caulifla seems cocky at times, this was a point in which she took advice from a more experienced fighter. Being very talented she was able to reach super saiyan two. Astounded by its power she continued to fight with Goku. When Cabba came to recruit her for the tournament, she cared little about the fate of the universes. Her only interest was acquiring a new form to elevate her power.This could change as she meets new people. Goku could have easily knocked her off the ring, but did not. It could be that he wants her to keep fighting so her stamina would drain. These are only theories. Caulifa may have found some form of friendship with Goku. She may be opening up to being a kinder person. Caulifla has much pride, but could be learning to be more humble and learn from the experiences of others. She may prove to be a helpful ally to Goku and his friends later on.

      The character designs for both characters should be praised. Normally female characters are portrayed as thin to an exaggerated extent. Even when they are supposed to be physically strong this default character design is used. Dragon Ball Super broke that convention having the saiyan women appear just as powerful. Not only that, it is clear they do not need assistance from the male cast. It is common for the damsel in distress trope to used redundantly. Here it is not can it is apparent that Kale and Caulifla can take care of themselves. One problem is that the physically strong woman is normally presented as a threat, anomaly, or the punchline to some gender based joke. The story arc has not used any of these common stereotypical roles. The physically strong woman either falls into two notable tropes. They are either cast as the amazonian beauty or brawn hilda. The strange aspect about Kale is that she could fall into both, yet she is still an evolving character. Caulifla, while not as athletic looking in her base form may not fit in either and could be  more associated with the action girl trope. The action girls seeks adventure and danger. They rarely back down from a challenge.

It seems that they are now better fighters than Cabba himself. The animators and creators of the series were not afraid to give these female characters a different character design. Some of more conservative taste would scoff at the idea of female characters drawn this way. The point of making a cartoon character is to design them in a unique way that is recognizable to viewers. These character designs make sense, because Saiyans are a warrior race. They value fighting and physical fitness. Their civilization parallels that of Sparta, Dahomey, and Japan in regards to warrior culture. That means their whole society was invested in war and even conquest. Unfortunately for the Saiyans of Goku’s universe that were the victims of Frezia. Seeing as these characters are super powered being they might as well appear that way. Fans were either shocked see such a design or embraced this as another surprise that Dragon Ball is known for.

There are some who are even enthusiastic about these two characters transformations. Many videos, fan art, and fan commentary have been produced just for the discussion of Kale and Caulifla. The magic of Dragon Ball is that it has the ability to create lovable and enduring characters. Kale and Caulifla are now part of that family. The creation of the character design is just as important as the personality you give that character.

      There appears to be a divide over these character s in the fan community. Some complained that Caulifla going super saiyan happened too fast and was anti-climatic. Detractors also said it cheapened that value of being a super saiyan. There are some problems wit these statements. First, it should be noted that Cabba went super saiyan in the last tournament. Trunks and Goten achieved this form as children. Could it be sexism among certain fans that get vexed that this happened to Kale and Caulifla? There is very little evidence, but there are various instances in which power scaling has been inconsistent. Then there are numerous transformations going from super sayian one to four  following the new form super sayian blue. Goku and Vegeta are the strongest fighters on Earth, so there would be little to be a challenge for them. It should be remembered that Goku was holding back when fight Kale, but it seem like that Kamehahmeha blast could have at least caused some damage. This could mean several things. Kale is either stronger than people realize and their is a possibility that it can increase more. Kale could in an uncontrolled state be stronger, but runs the risk of destroying herself and cohorts. The last theory is that she has reached the full extent of her potential. Caulifla seems to be like Goku in a sense that she has the ability to master techniques fast. Others criticize this as lazy writing, but you could easily say that about Goku reaching super saiyan 3 during the Buu saga.

The point is many characters have become very overpowered and strong. Frankly, there should not be any complaint about power scaling. A franchise that has been around this long is bound to have inconsistencies in its folklore. Maybe it does not create a plot hole at at all. These are an alien species that are operating on a completely different physiological biology. This is only speculative, but more could be revealed as the arc progresses. Another prevalent criticism is that Kale is nothing more than a Toei Animation marketing gimmick. The company realizes that they have many devoted fans and Broly has been a fan favorite. Some were disappointed that Broly was not made cannon. Kale is a homage to the character in a sense as one can see from the outfit and her personality. A faction of fans still call her the “female Broly” even though it appears the character is developing into something different. There are either fans who like the character or dislike her in the series. While it is legitimate to say there should not be a character just to sell products or do fan pandering, it is unfair not to at least give the character a chance. There are fans who also fall into the camp of overwhelming support.

Anyone who has followed Dragon Ball would know there is a huge fan art community. Even before the appearance of these characters fans were drawing what they thought female super saiyans would loo like. Prior to Kale’s official appearance fans were already making art based on a leaked clip. It is wonderful that female characters are gaining popularity in the franchise. Other characters are even coming back to prominence such as Andriod 18. Action series tend to marginalize female characters either regulating them to support roles or merely having no consequence to the story. Dragon Ball was actually different. Looking back, these adventures would have never started if Bulma never came across Goku in the woods. This is significant,because it shows female characters actually doing something of importance and consequence. The arrival of Kale and Caulifla has more significance than some realize.

         Women are becoming manga and anime consumers. There is a change as the anime culture continues to expand internationally. If women are getting interested in Dragon Ball, there should be some representation. It should not just be any uninspired or random character just to placate the advocates of diversity. These should be unique and well developed characters, rather than just token based tropes. So far,it seems the series is doing this right. There could be the possibility of a Vasquez always dies trope. However, the viewer should remain positive. This arc proves to be the best yet and it is clear that the Dragon Ball franchise is not going anywhere any time soon. Just having Kale and Caulifla present sends a message that you can create interesting female characters. This could inspire younger manga artists and animators to experiment with something new. Do not be afraid to draw the women differently or have a unconventional characterization. What makes this series great is that it is very creative and that is demonstrated by its large cast of characters. Kale and Caulifla will stand out as fan favorites.

The Significance of Kale and Caulifla on Dragon Ball Super

General Blogging Tips

Starting a blog is a laborious project. There are many considerations for those who wish to do so. These are some general guidelines to a person with an interest in writing and posting it for people to read. The process should be constantly evolving and making gradual improvements. This means experimenting with new ideas or techniques. Writing is essential and can be the key to your blog’s success. Layout and content are also critical elements. Do not expect immediate results from your efforts. It could take a number of years for visitation to increase to your blog. Planning before actually launching also make the process more organized. Starting is normally the most difficult part. Subject matter is essential and it is critical that it is a topic that sparks your interest. Do not be afraid to try creative experiments. Some attempts  may be successful others may not. These observations are a combination techniques and methods  that have been gathered over the years since this blog was started in 2014.

        When attempting to initiate a blog there should be an outline phase. This can either be done in a notebook or written on your computer. Before any writing is stated subject matter and topics should be selected. When making a choice, it should be a topic that you have an interest or fascination with. The more passionate you are about a topic or idea the easier it is to write about. If it is a subject that is either rare, unknown, or controversial it only enriches the substance of the blog. The subject of women with muscle and women in sports generates many opinions and reactions. This provides an immense amount of material for writing. Scope is also an element that must be considered. A narrow range many not provide as much content as a focused one. This can easily be solved by categorizing your blog posts into menu sections. The flaw with that is that readers could have potential information overload. Another pivotal part of the planning process is to articulate what is the mission or goal of the blog.

These women have some fascinating stories about why and how they got to where they are. 

It should be a lucid statement revealing what the blog is about. If it is not elucidated then visitors may leave and never return to the blog. There may be some occasions users will do a quick browse to understand what type of blog it is. Doing this may not be enough to get the visitor to stay. The general mission statement also helps summarize the whole blog.  It is a good practice to scribble ideas down so when you actually are ready to publish it is organized. Depending on what blogging platform or site you are organizing, make it so that it is simple to navigate for visitors. If possible make or either use an image as a site logo. This can be your signature, which visitors can remember.

Women have progress far in professional sports. Considering their entry into profession sports is recent that makes the progression even more amazing. This phenomenon has not been studied as much.  

Design choices depend on what is aesthetically pleasing to the producer of the blog. It does not have to be incredibly fancy or colorful. Sometimes the most simple design and still look nice to a viewer.  Outlining can help make creating a blog less stressful.

        Writing follows a structure. Essays function on a thesis, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The best arguments revolve around facts and data. However, it is how information is presented to the reader, which makes it most effective. If the text is too didactic  it becomes dry and dull. If writing on a blog becomes overly sensational then it resembles a tabloid lacking substance or depth. There should be a level of enthusiasm projected in the writing with a combination of substantive information. The thesis is the opening statement and the position one is arguing. Thesis by definition is “a theory put forth as a premise that can be proven.” From this stage of developing a thesis, the body paragraphs will follow in the essay structure. When selecting sources it is best to use books, websites, or newspaper articles. These can be either primary or secondary source materials. The more sources the better quality of written work. The conclusion gives a synopsis and also makes the final point to the argument. Writing does not have to follow this exact structure. Some posts can be short others a little longer. This also depends on the topic. The writing for a blog can either be formal or informal. Do not be afraid to try something either humorous or controversial. However, one should be mindful of what they write and how it is presented. Free speech is an excellent concept which allows various forms of expression, but it does not give one the right to advance an agenda of hate or falsehoods.  Comments should be welcomed, but if they are just meant to be bullying or disparage a particular group then they should be deleted. It is unfortunate that civil conversation in many regards had become extinct, especially online.  Closed minded people normally react in a negative way to new ideas or people different from themselves. They constantly may write negative comments and it is best that their responses be deleted. If they want to share their opinions or convictions they should start one of their own. Do not let them use your blog as a platform to promote themselves.

While there may be less than pleasant responses, this does not mean all criticism should be silenced. Constructive criticism should be used as a form of guidance to future improvement. If a reader has a suggestion, take that into account.  The quality of writing is what will make the blog a success and constant adjustment is necessary. Besides expression of ideas, audio and visual content is helpful.

       Photography and pictures can add to the quality of a blog. Writing can be enhanced more so with visuals. Selection of photos is also important if one is trying to make prove an axiom. Sometimes a photo is more powerful than  words. A great photographer captures the emotion and passion of the moment through a lens. The wonderful aspect about the internet is that there are millions of photographs at a user’s finger tips. These photographs can either be professional, personal,  or candid shots. They encompass all elements of life from work, daily life, and general pastimes. There has to be some thought in which photos will be selected for a post. It also helps to find photographs that are rare, which can be a special treat to readers.

Photography can capture a wide range of human emotion. Here you can see Sally Pearson overcome with it after realizing she won a gold medal.
This is an example of a professional photograph. It is not capturing the action in the moment, but forming a controlled environment. Asha Hadley  shown above is seen posing in a light pink and white colored room.
youth olympics-eda nastaran
Capturing movement in an action photo is not about controlling the setting. It is about documenting a specific moment.

The rare photographs are historical documentations. They provide evidence of past occurrences they people would not easily believe. Besides written documents, artifacts,  and oral traditions, photography also is a pivotal primary source material.  The discovery of new information allows for historical revision of the narrative. The idea of women being involved in sports or some form of physical activity is nothing new. There were cases in which they did participate, but were restricted due to the cultural mores depending on the time period. Photographs also become one more piece of evidence of the past and what it was like. Preservation is important for future generations.

Another element for selection of photos relates to demographics. There is problem with lack of representation of non-white people in media. If you are going to have a blog and want it viewed by global audiences there needs to be diversity. This should not be mere tokenism that is commonly seen in popular media. Doing this allows for expansion of audience. When choosing photographs do not just select pictures of people of the same ethnic, religious, or cultural group. This is a global society; it is time to start representing it as one. When you write understand there are billions of people across the globe with internet access. They are of numerous ethnic, religious, cultural, and national backgrounds. Speaking to their experience will gain their attention. Photo selections should not be done at random, rather a contemplative decision should be made whether it enhances the blog.

       Adding videos can also increase readership. This is more a challenge than selecting photos. There are enough public domain photos that avoid copyright restrictions. Videos if embedded from another channel on a streaming site and either be deleted or disappear. The best option would be to have your own account on Youtube, Vimeo, or Dailymotion. As long as the video is being used for educational purposes and the user is not making a profit of or taking credit for the material, it falls under fair use. Be sure to check the terms of services requirements for posting videos. The great part about videos is that they can be stand alone posts. Interviews and segments of  certain events can entertain readers. It is optional if a writer wants to put text with it. Some videos may need further explanation in a wider context. This is done to demonstrate relevance to the subject matter and prevent confusion. Rare archival footage would require further elucidation to the reader. If it has no audio, then it will leave the reader perplexed to what is its purpose relative to the site. Videos can be stand alone posts, although they can be used to enhance mostly text based posts. An interview, audio file, or news clip can add so much to a written post. Some may actually be more responsive to audio-visual material.

       Try something different with your blog. Posts do not always have to be serious. There can be a level of humor. This can be a relief in a world that is filled with nothing but violence and despair. A little break from bad news can be refreshing. Adding jokes or popular memes can draw some attention. Producing a blog is just not providing information; it is providing entertainment. Thinking from this perspective, the writer becomes a type of entertainer. Experiments in writing and production can either be a success or a failure. This does not mean there should be no attempts at different approaches.

16b1f62be93b150eaccdd11c39682b4a cac784bcaaea103d833e6175d61e7f09


The memes and motivational posters above are examples of adding some comedy to your blog. The content should be multifaceted. Informative, comedic, and entertainment can make it a more enriching site.

      The other consideration is deadlines. This is difficult due to producing high quality works in a certain amount of time. Start off keeping realistic deadlines. If posting material once a month works, start off with that. Doing something rushed will often result in low quality work. This does not mean writing produced in a fast manner cannot be high quality. Once a writer is satisfied with their work they should publish it. There should be a dedicated effort not to keep going back and editing posts. This should only be done if a part of information is incorrect or there is a grammatical error. There should be an editing process that is done before posting. Avoid overwhelming yourself with trying to meet deadlines. Quantity does not equal quality and it creates another issue. New readers may have trouble keeping up with posts and may not visit as frequently. Information overload can discourage people from exploring certain sites. It may be best to wait a few days between posts. Sometimes there are materials and news that you want to share immediately. There is nothing wrong with multiple posts,but more is not always better. Eventually, you will realize when is the right time to add a new post. Keeping these general guidelines in mind anyone can produce a blog.

General Blogging Tips

Black History Month Celebration 2017

These are some Photoshop renditions to celebrate Black History Month. These feature women of color in sports from various parts of the diaspora. The last two years an observance was not recognized here, but it will continue to be more consistent. Given the current political climate in the United States, it is necessary. There will be other special posts through the month to celebrate African American women’s contribution to sports.








Black History Month Celebration 2017

The First Female Super Saiyan?

Dragonball Super is the latest series in the beloved anime  franchise.  It has fans all around the world and has been around since its first appearance in manga form in 1984. Through the years it has had various characters that have appeared in movies and TV series. There are female characters in various capacities. All through the years viewers have seen super saiyans. They are mostly male, but that has changed now. It seems Dragonball Super will have its first female super saiyan. This is more significant than some fans realize. It means women characters will be given more roles than just minor support. Chi Chi was at one point a martial artist, but has settled into a domestic role. Bulma was never a fighter, but was important and helpful being the creator of the dragon radar. Android 18 is a fighter, but has not trained seriously. Videl seems to have given up martial arts. She could be making a comeback in this upcoming arc. Pan at this point in the series is still a baby and not a fighter yet. The currently unknown Saiyan in the series is rumored to be from universe six. The preview for episode 76 exposed her in super saiyan form. What also should be noted is the character design. This new female character when transformed looks immensely powerful. Her muscles resemble Broly’s  and fans now believe she is related to that character in some way. This does not seem possible, because Broly is not exactly cannon. It is too early to tell, but it could be a homage to Broly in this series. The depiction of a muscular body type rather than a slim one is a progressive and creative decision. The character is one of many that are generating interest this season. This character will either be an antagonist or a protagonist, but it marks a major change in the role of female characters in the Dragonball universe.

               This new character will may be hard to classify in certain tropes. Strong women fall into various tropes either being negative or positive. The amazonian beauty presents the strong or muscular woman as a role model. The brawn hilda is more pejorative depicting them as unpleasant or grotesque. From the little footage available it is hard to say if this new character could fit into any of these tropes. Her regular form does not look strong, but when the transformation happens she looks bigger than Goku.

The difference is her face does not become altered  and the torso still contains feminine proportions. She is not exactly Broly in a dress, but her biceps could rival his. The character does not fit into either category of the strong woman tropes. This may not be an awful development and could allow for more creative possibilities. The hope is that the writers will make the character interesting and not resort to the same stereotypes or formulas done ad nauseum . There also is a possibility of another trope that befalls many strong female characters ( in both the physical and mental definitions). The capable woman is killed, when it would seem that she has the skills to survive. However, death in the Dragonball universe seems to be undone by wishes from the dragonballs. Whether protagonist or antagonist characters sometimes make there way back to the series.


The hope is that this new character will be given some development. The series has a tradition making fun and entertaining characters. She needs to be more than just a muscle head fighter. Each character has a specific personality. Goku’s carefree attitude, Vegeta’s temper, Krillin’s loyalty, and Picolo’s  wisdom are their trademarks. This new character must have a signature as well.

       The fan reaction to this character seems divided. There are fans who are excited to see new characters and this one has become one of intense fascination. The more negative response is that there are fans who hate the character design and claim that female super Saiyans are not possible. There is no reason why there cannot be. This character is from another universe in which the Saiyans were not killed by Frieza. It is only fair to give the character a chance and watch the story arc before making such judgments. There are some who say that this makes the series more insane than usual. The series at its core has always been rather strange. The Dragonball series is in many regards a parody and homage to other action anime and elements of Asian myths. The series combines comedy, action, fighting, and adventure. Along with the amalgamation with peculiar characters it makes the manga and anime unique. It is excellent that it continues to reveal a much wider environment. While male fans may not be comfortable with a muscular woman character or a female super Saiyan, they could change their minds depending on the success on this story arc.

        The question remains why did it take this long to have a female super Saiyan  or another serious female fighter? Too many are quick to say sexism, but this may not be the case. They appear in DBZ video games. Although Pan is just a baby she has the potential to become one. It has been rumored that Akira Toriyama just had difficulty designing a female super Saiyan to his liking. The fan art community has already produce renditions, so it can be done. These range from fan art from characters based off the show or movies as well as DBZ inspired original creations.

 Toriyama and Toei animation want to produce a high quality character. This may be the reason it took so long. This is more significant than some people realize. It is the first time women characters are being presented out the traditional tropes ( damsel in distress or token female  ) or merely being support characters of no major consequence. The female characters that did fight or play important roles were reduced to the background ( Videl, Android 18, and Bulma ). Dragonball Super does attempt to give most of the characters both minor and major screen time. This unknown female Saiyan  is progress in the right direction. The point is to make your female characters just as interesting and lively as your male ones. They should not just be present for no reason.

This is not from the show, but fan art. It seems some are enthusiastic about this character. 

For female Dragonball  fans this should be a joyous occasion. There is now another female hero that you call one of your favorites. Andriod 18 appears to be in the Survival tournament form what can be gathered by the promotional images. This is what keeps the franchise fresh and exciting. It is willing to experiment in different ways. The future seems unclear, but it will be a surprising story arc. If she written right this unknown female Saiyan could become one of many popular Dragonball characters.

The First Female Super Saiyan?

Sarah Hayes

Sarah Hayes is an IFBB professional bodybuilder, coach,  and personal trainer.Since 2004 she has been training athletes and various clients. Formally she would train clients at her residence and gyms around Dallas, Texas. Sarah was born on a small farm in Minnesota in 1977. She attended Augusta College on a volleyball scholarship,  graduating with two degrees in   athletic training and exercise science. Her minor was in exercise management. After graduating in the year 2000 she moved to Oxford, Ohio. There she took a job as an assistant strength and conditioning coach. Sarah Hayes was involved in developing nine different programs for women’s teams. She also developed more for nine additional ones at the university. She attended graduate school at the University of Miami majoring in sports studies. Sarah Hayes work load became immense and she did not complete it. However, she did find a new opportunity at the University of Minnesota. There she trained both male and female sports teams. Sarah Hayes also started her own business Dynamic Fitness Consultants around that time.

sarah-hayes-467 It seemed only natural that Sarah would eventually gravitate to the sport of bodybuilding. Sarah competed at first in figure being convince by a friend in 2007. Sarah placed fourth in her figure contest. To her own admission ” After prejudging I realized that I’m not a figure girl.” Her first show was in the Gopher Bodybuilding Classic in her home state of Minnesota. Sarah then had to make a new strategy. She then hired a coach Keith Williams a bodybuilder himself, as her trainer. This time the goal was to take titles in the Ms. Minnesota. She was able to change her physique enough to enter the bodybuilding division of the natural Ms. Minnesota. Sarah won overall and was awarded pro status in the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation. Sarah Hayes turned it down, because she wanted to compete in the NPC instead. There were some setbacks. Sarah had to get shoulder surgery, but still trained. Her next moves involved her working her way to a professional. Sarah says of these early years: ” I was training to compete as an NPC figure competitor seeing as I wanted to do fitness modeling.” Her coach then told Sarah that fitness models are not female bodybuilders and fitness or figure were. This seems like a ludicrous statement, because the only element that separates them is aesthetics and levels of development.

This was some incorrect information Sarah was given, but she continued to figure out this new world of bodybuilding. Her body was too big for what the judges wanted in the figure division.

       Sarah attended the Arnold Classic in 2008 and many asked her if she was competing in bodybuilding. Sarah got discouraged, because she was aiming to still go to figure. Sarah’s hesitant behavior she revealed was based on the idea if she got bigger, she would lose her femininity. She overcame this ridiculous notion and in her own words ” I realized I could maintain my femininity, and  be a fitness model. ” Now that irrational fear was gone Sarah then competed in the The Minnesota Gopher Classic. She won the heavyweight and overall titles and now could compete at a national level.  Her best wins include the 2009 Lone Star Classic, 2009 Ronnie Coleman Classic, 2010 Branch Warren Bodybuilding, 2009 NPC Europa, 2012 Tampa Pro, and the 2009 Europa. Sarah Hayes made her Ms.Olympia debut in 2012.


Sarah is 5 ‘5.5 ” and competes at 160 lbs. During the off season she can weigh as much as 178 lbs.  Sometimes she will compete at 164 lbs. Sarah once said that one of her best features was he backside and glutes.  As she stated in an interview ” I often get complimented on by back and butt. ” The reason she had built such an impressive feature is because her favorite exercises include luges, squats, and dumbbell shoulder presses.

 Sarah Hayes says what she loves most about the sport is that it challenges her physically and mentally. She as stated “to me it is an art.” Sarah attributes her success to her friends and family saying ” my friends and family are wonderful to me giving lots of support.” Many female bodybuilders do get reactions from the general public. Sarah reveals “I often get stared at when I’m in public, especially when I’m wearing sports clothes or dressy clothes that are fitted.” Sarah has iterated that it is mostly positive. This would not be surprising, because she presents a very impressive and beautiful physique. This has made her popular on female bodybuilder photography sites and sports wear modeling. She has appeared in  various photo shoots for Gene X9 and Dan Ray Photography.

 Sarah’s goal is not necessarily to win every contest, but in her words ” be an inspiration to all people.” Sarah  as she puts it ” wants to be a female bodybuilding icon, to which others look to seeing a very feminine woman with muscles, which is accepted and beautiful. “Sarah has inspirations of her own. These include athletes which are her personal favorites. Her favorite bodybuilders include Lisa Aukland, Iris Kyle, Betty Pariso, and Cathy Francois. Shilahe Brown another bodybuilder was helpful to Sarah in her posing practice and training. Chad Ray also provided coaching in guidance in her rise in the IFBB. Besides sports icons that give inspiration to Sarah, she also cites her mother, sister, and grandmother as her first role models.

         Being a professional athlete is time consuming. Sarah Hayes does find time for hobbies and friends. She loves attending Church and reading. What Sarah likes to read are fitness, bodybuilding, and nutrition magazines as well as books. Sarah also enjoys doing puzzles like word searches and word fill ins. She enjoys watching movies. Her favorites include Rocky  and The Terminator. Sarah Hayes also loves to travel, cook, and bake during her off season. She is a sports fanatic and enjoys attending sports events. She also participates in bowling, golfing, softball,  and has said “I enjoy  playing all sports.” Sarah has a love of athletic competition. She seems to be the gregarious type stating “I love to be social.” Sarah’s music of choice includes Hip-Hop, R&B, Rap, Rock and Roll and Christian music. A busy schedule that Sarah  has it needs to have some leisurely activity.

           Sarah Hayes has not made a competition appearance since 2012. The reason being is she was able to get a teaching position at the University of Southern California. Once again she relocated and began coaching. She has nor given up training nor announced that she has retired from the sport.


There are still contests for female bodybuilders to compete in,even if they are shrinking. It was rumored at one time that Sarah Hayes may consider switching to the physique division. After all she did start out as a figure competitor. This should not be a disappointment to fans, because in reality physique is just lightweight bodybuilding. Sarah was fortunate enough to reach the Ms.Olympia stage while it was still in existence. The Wings of Strength Rising Phoenix  is the successor to the now defunct Ms.Olympia. This may be where fans will see Sarah Hayes next. If not, you can follow her on facebook and instagram ( Sarah Hayes ). Certainly it seems the bodybuilding scene has not seen the last of Sarah Hayes.

Sarah Hayes

Schmoes Who Love Session Wrestling FBB & Why!!! By Marcie Simmons

Marcie Madness

It has been known within the bodybuilding subculture that schmoes enjoy session wrestling. However, there is never a full explanation to why this occurs. Every action has a motivation and reason behind it. Marcie Simmons a female bodybuilder herself provides some in sight into why schmoes love wrestling women who are immensely strong. From her youtube channel she gives several reasons. She also speaks from experience. Marcie has appeared in wrestling videos and has done a semi-competitive wrestling session She has not only wrestled men, but other women. She has said that it does test athletic skills intensely. This video in a way is both a documentation and ethnographic study. Marcie proceeds to explain the different types of wrestling. Then goes further about what makes men seek such activities.

The basic categories include fantasy, semi-competitive, and competitive. Fantasy is about the strong woman having complete control. The man will not resist her wrestling moves or actions. Fantasy wrestling is not meant to be real. The important part is that the woman is demonstrating her full physical power. The client may want to feel the strength of their thighs or if they can lift them up and carry them. Some even like the women to sit on top of them.



This is not exactly sadomasochistic, because the purpose is not to experience pain. The client wants to feel the full power of the athletic woman. There is sexual arousal from this and it mainly comes from the demonstration of physical strength. The semi- competitive matches are when a client puts up some resistance. They simply will not remain down, put try to make contact with the female bodybuilder in doing wrestling moves. They are not really trying to win, put more so play. Like children it is a fun game, nothing serious. The other dynamic is that client is curious to see how high the strength level is of the female bodybuilder. Many times when there is a wrestling video of a male versus a female, generally it is assumed it is fake. There are many who still think that no woman could be stronger than a man. This is the exception. Curiosity about women like this and their abilities excites fans. The client wants to test the wrestler to see if it is possible they can overpower them. Therefore this type of wrestling session will have more energy.

 While it is true that there are fake videos, some are real. The unrealistic ones are of course fantasy. Then there are videos that have a mismatch with an unusual outcome. A 130 pound woman would have difficulty beating a 180 pound man in a wrestling match. Some videos feature women who are slender doing this. Looks can be deceiving considering they may actually have martial arts experience. To any viewer it is obvious that the strength gap would be vast and the woman could not beat a man if the match were real. A woman with a strong body it would not be a challenge. There is the element of power exchange. Both the client want to see who tires first and struggle for dominance.

 This back and forth can be fun for both the client and the wrestler. The stronger woman may find pleasure in  knowing she can toy around with a weaker man. The client may just be in a state of euphoria seeing the strong women they have only seen in pictures and videos up close. The competitive sessions are rare. This is when men  and women wrestle to win. Marcie Simmons also exposes there is a dark side to this. Some of these men could be women abusers incognito who express misogynistic beliefs  through going to sessions. The difference between being competitive and harmful is that the intent is directed at physically doing damage to women. This demonstrates that sessions do have a level of risk . Women take a chance meeting men they do not know. Women no matter how physically strong they could still be vulnerable if they are not trained in self-defense. For some athletes this is not a problem because they have trained in either judo, karate, or jujitsu. If a man gets too rough, they could certainly end it. Brigita Brezovac  had a martial arts background and  did not fear doing competitive matches. Women who do sessions travel not only in their nations of origin, but all around the world. It can be dangerous, but it is unclear how many incidents have happened.

  Although there are cases of issues with competitive wrestling, most just like the challenge. Some men either competed in wrestling themselves and just wanted to test their skills against another woman. Clients even seek women who specifically have wrestling skills for sessions. There are female bodybuilders who do not have backgrounds in wrestling, but known enough moves to do sessions. This type of competitive session is directed more so to the athlete. Men and women of athletic backgrounds want to be challenged. It seems the fetish element is not emphasized, but rather the sporting activity. Marcie adds one more type of session wrestling classification. This is known as submission, which involves the client merely taking the wrestling mores with no resistance. The goal is to be pinned and immobilized by the female bodybuilder. There will be no attempt to escape the hold. It could be a headscissor, grape vine, or headlock the client will not attempt to escape.




When the wrestling move is fully employed it is total submission. The desire is to not only feel the woman’s physical power, but to be physically helpless. The cat of being overpowered becomes a sexual turn on. This is a stimuli to certain men.

       The biggest question remains to observers is why would a man want to be wrestled by a physically strong woman ? It is a fetish as Marcie explains. The fact that a muscular woman and women who are extremely muscular are still taboo may add to the thrill. They do not conform to what society believes a woman should be and instead developed a new model of womanhood. It combines strength with a new female aesthetic. These women are rare, which may also explain why schmoes treasure them the way they do. Their are few women who can lift and carry a man and perform strength feats. Even if a man wants his wife or girlfriend who is capable of such feats to do it, she may not want to. The fear of asking could make it seem as if the man is a sexual deviant as Marcie states.

If a woman is open about exploring different things with their significant other, then there is no fear and revealing such predilections. Then being ostracized as eccentric also becomes an issue for a man who likes this. It should also be noted that its not just the appearance of having muscle, but being strong. There are women who are not as muscular as bodybuilders who do wrestling sessions. They may not look strong, but are considering their size.

Marcie Simmons concludes that it is an outlet for sexual expression. This could be both biological and psychological. Human evolution just like it did for other animal species functions on both natural selection and sex selection. The reason human beings have these urges are based on the need to reproduce off spring. Sigmund Freud believed many psychological disorders were rooted in repressed sexuality. When discussing the role of sexuality and human development this caused major controversy in academic circles. While his theories and system of psychoanalysis can be disputed or at times discredited, there is some truth. People do go through stages of psychosexual development. This starts at childhood and accelerates during puberty. The changes in the brain and endocrine system prepare the human body for sexual reproduction. Men have different preferences in regards to sexual attraction. It could be rooted in childhood experiences. The appearance of a muscular woman in film, TV, or printed media may spark an interest. Sexual expression is the reason Marcie explains why people view pornography. This expression is displayed in a multitude of ways. The expression relevant to Marcie’s video is feeling the power of a strong woman. The problem is society does not accept other forms of beauty. Maybe its not that the lover of female muscle is odd, but a community that wants to impose a conformity of values.

        Too often their is only focus on what men are thinking during these wrestling sessions. It is important to understand what women think, seeing as they make this possible. Their motivations could be as numerous and complex. One reason for women doing sessions is that it’s a financial matter. Some do it to sponsor their competition fees. A sport that does not support its athletes has left them thinking of new ways to survive. It has become a business and one that is effective at keeping some women in the sport.

 The cost of food, training, and supplements can reach astronomical proportions. The session wrestling can supplement certain expenses. The financial motivation is obvious, but there are some women who do this for other reasons. Women who have wrestled men have said they have had fun doing so. Physically overpowering a man is something that few women experience. Society although women have advanced is still male dominated. It is rare that women can impose power over men, but in this case there is a reversal. This is merely on a physical level. Most of the women are stronger than the men they meet. This reversal can be fun for women who normally have to play a subordinate role in the societies in which they live.

Marcie Simmons tried a wrestling semi-competitive match for Utopia Entertainment videos. 

Women can dominate a man with her physical strength without repercussion. There comes a sense of empowerment from this that women may experience. It breaks the myth that men will always be in control of women. For both male and female participants it takes them back to childhood. The act of free play was an activity every child enjoyed. Girls and boys could play together with minimal concerns about gender appropriate behavioral conduct. These strict cultural mores disappear in this milieu.  There is a misconception that sessions are the domain of female bodybuilders only and that it symbolizes a dying sport. The truth is that even women in physique, fitness, and bikini do wrestling or wrestling sessions. These categories are considered more popular and marketable according to the fitness world, but the women are still paid less. Again, money is part of the motivation. It seems the other competitors in categories have taken the lead of bodybuilders. It has become a trend and exciting activity for some.

Yasmin is a grappler.
Roxy is a figure competitor.
Maria Garcia competes in physique.
Storm is a fitness competitor.
Skylar Rene  is a bikini competitor.

It appears that women of various athletic backgrounds are doing session wrestling. Women who are not even session wrestlers or participate in the circuit try it just out of curiosity. It is activity new and unknown especially to women just entering the subculture of the fitness world. The unknown can either be an exciting adventure or cause some trepidation. Women who are more adventurous and open minded to new things are willing to at least try it. When some do, they find it fun and may doing some wrestling videos for websites.The women come to the realization that they are more powerful than they thought. The weaker sex stereotype is still prevalent and in this case women can break out of it. Women are taught that men are so much more powerful and physical pursuits for women is a worthless effort. Despite the negativity, these women have reach a high level of strength and can challenge men in physical activities. Doing this could provide psychological relief from a world constantly preaching the concept of female inferiority. Not only that, they get admiration that is not given by representatives in the fitness industry. The women may be happy to know there are fans out there who appreciate their efforts. Women may also have a turn on by doing these activities. Men do seek out these activities due to sexual fetish, but it could also be similar for women. Some may be aroused by the fact they could crush a man’s rib cage with their legs. Power either mental or physical is attractive to people.


Women also may find the physical contest rewarding. Athletes such as these crave physical challenges. Challenging a man in a physical contest seems like something that would attract some women. There are men of different sizes who are clients and some women just want to see how many they can beat at a wrestling match. There are women who wrestle both large and smaller men sometimes having multiple sessions in a day. There are women who want to test their skills to the maximum and see how much they can endure. Intense workouts are thrilling to them and wrestling is a high energy activity. It has been done that some women spar with men to improve their athletic performance. However, this just seems like more of physical play rather than serious workout. Women are not just passive actors in this session wrestling activity.

         Their is a level of hypocrisy when criticism is directed at session wrestling or liking muscular women. There are claims that its the equivalent of prostitution  or exploitative. These claims can be discredited. Prostitution involves payment for intercourse. The session wrestlers do not offer that  to clients. That does not mean it does not happen, but wrestling would hardly count as prostitution. There is an erotic element and other instances its purely about men and women wrestling. This stems from the whole concept of men who like muscular women are sexual deviants. It is also combined with a subtle sexism. Women can either fit into the whore or mother dichotomy in a narrow minded misogynistic perspective. If a woman does not follow the proper gender script, she is banished to being labelled as whore. It effects men negatively as well, because it insists there is only one model of beauty men should be attracted to. The slender body type has been valued more ( at least in Western society )  over others. Men who like muscular also like women who are not strong or athletic at all.

  Men who are fans of female muscle would still find the woman on the left as attractive as the athlete on the right.

As Marcie Simmons expounded half way through her presentation, men who do sessions could be married or have girlfriends. The strange part about this is that female athletes are more visible and showing muscular physiques. Then there is a small movement of “strong is the new skinny” prevalent in fitness circles. There is a size acceptance movement directed at women who are larger. The question still remains why there is no muscular acceptance for women. The movement to accept larger and curvier women is a positive step forward. It has to understood that women’s bodies come in different shapes and sizes.

These two here prove bigger or muscular women can be pretty too. 

Women can either be thicker, more muscular, or naturally thinner than others. Society dictates beauty standards on a gender basis. The ideals are unattainable to most. There is a profit motive in this obsession. Slowly, women are beginning to reject dictated beauty standards. The muscular woman is condemned to the fringes in the spectrum. This comes as the small, but growing movement toward a more muscular appearance ( “toned”) becomes fashionable. Before “strong is the new skinny” women in athletics have been presenting powerful physiques. The women of the Olympics present strong looking bodies in track and field  events  including weightlifting. Women in other athletic events do too. They were the pioneers of this new body image  paradigm, when it was not acceptable. Society has at least some acceptance, but not completely.

These women are more visible, even though women’s sports get less media coverage. This higher level of exposure may help stem negative prejudices. The hyper-muscular or female bodybuilder does not get as much exposure to the general public, which may explain  the public’s reactions. It is a double standard due to the fact these are both muscular women to varying degrees. The larger women are accused of “going too far.” There are some men who like muscle on women, but say it has to be limited to remain feminine. A woman being bigger or muscular does not mean she has changed her sex. This is derived from sexist beliefs that women should limit themselves. If you are an athlete in strict competition, the point is to enhance your physicality to the maximum. The criticism is never directed at men. The vexing aspect is that no one ever states ” you have a skinny woman fetish.” That is considered as normal. The world is different in a post-sexual revolution era. It seems many elements of entertainment and culture are sexualized to an immense degree. Compared to other activities, session wrestling seems harmless. The sociological and ethnographical dimensions of this practice are fascinating. It is an interaction between sexuality, entertainment, and gender relations.

Schmoes Who Love Session Wrestling FBB & Why!!! By Marcie Simmons